The timing and pattern of biotic recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction

  title={The timing and pattern of biotic recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction},
  author={Zhong‐Qiang Chen and Michael J. Benton},
  journal={Nature Geoscience},
The aftermath of the great end-Permian period mass extinction 252 Myr ago shows how life can recover from the loss of >90% species globally. The crisis was triggered by a number of physical environmental shocks (global warming, acid rain, ocean acidification and ocean anoxia), and some of these were repeated over the next 5-6 Myr. Ammonoids and some other groups diversified rapidly, within 1-3 Myr, but extinctions continued through the Early Triassic period. Triassic ecosystems were rebuilt… 

Early Triassic Marine Biotic Recovery: The Predators' Perspective

The data indicate that marine ecosystems characterized by multiple trophic levels existed from the earliest Early Triassic onwards, and that a major change in the taxonomic composition of predatory guilds occurred less than two million years after the end-Permian extinction event, in which a transition from fish/amphibian to fish/reptile-dominated higher troPHic levels within ecosystems became apparent.

The main stage of recovery after the end-Permian mass extinction: taxonomic rediversification and ecologic reorganization of marine level-bottom communities during the Middle Triassic

The Early Triassic lag phase represents the time when the reduced species richness in the wake of the end-Permian mass extinction was insufficient for stimulating major diversifications, whereas the Anisian main diversification event started when self-accelerating processes became effective and stopped when niche-crowding prevented further diversification.

Decoupled taxonomic and ecological recoveries from the Permo-Triassic extinction

It is shown that marine ecosystems dominated by non-motile animals shifted to ones dominated by nektonic groups after the extinction of Permian-Triassic animals, suggesting that a process of vacant niche filling before reaching the maximum environmental carrying capacity is independent of ecosystem structure building.

Life in the Aftermath of Mass Extinctions

  • P. Hull
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Current Biology
  • 2015

Recovery of lacustrine ecosystems after the end-Permian mass extinction

The end-Permian mass extinction (EPME; ca. 252 Ma) led to profound changes in lacustrine ecosystems. However, whether or not post-extinction recovery of lacustrine ecosystems was delayed has remained


Multicellar life came closest to complete annihilation during the ca.252 Ma Permian–Triassic mass extinction (PTME), which resulted inthe largest crash in global biodiversity since the Cambrian

Evidence from South Africa for a protracted end-Permian extinction on land

A unique dataset comprising hundreds of precisely positioned tetrapod fossils is analyzed, identifying a protracted (∼1 Ma) extinction and the blooming of “disaster taxa” before the main extinction rather than in its aftermath as assumed previously, demonstrating that the effects of biotic crises vary prominently among Earth’s surface environments.

The rise of the ruling reptiles and ecosystem recovery from the Permo-Triassic mass extinction

  • M. EzcurraR. Butler
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2018
This results indicate the following sequence of diversification: a morphologically conservative and globally distributed post-extinction ‘disaster fauna’; a major but cryptic and poorly sampled phylogenetic diversification with significantly elevated evolutionary rates; and a marked increase in species counts, abundance, and disparity contemporaneous with global ecosystem stabilization some 5 million years after the extinction.



Recovery from the most profound mass extinction of all time

  • Sarda SahneyM. Benton
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2008
The data showed that though there was an initial rise in cosmopolitanism after the extinction pulses, large drops subsequently occurred and, counter-intuitively, a surprisingly low level of cosmopolitanist was sustained through the Early and Middle Triassic.

Delayed recovery of non-marine tetrapods after the end-Permian mass extinction tracks global carbon cycle

  • R. IrmisJ. Whiteside
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2011
It is demonstrated that non-marine tetrapods were severely affected by the end-Permian mass extinction, and that these assemblages did not begin to recover until the Middle Triassic, consistent with the idea that unstable low-diversity post-extinction ecosystems were subject to boom–bust cycles.

Recovery tempo and pattern of marine ecosystems after the end-Permian mass extinction

High-resolution sampling of more than 10,000 microfossils from seven Late Permian−Middle Triassic paleoequatorial sections in south China refutes claims for a 5 m.y. recovery delay after the

Good Genes and Good Luck: Ammonoid Diversity and the End-Permian Mass Extinction

Analysis of a global diversity data set of ammonoid genera covering about 106 million years centered on the Permian-Triassic boundary shows that Triassic ammonoids actually reached levels of diversity higher than in the PerMian less than 2 million years after the PTB.

Ecosystem remodelling among vertebrates at the Permian–Triassic boundary in Russia

The nature of the event in Russia is document in a comprehensive survey of 675 specimens of amphibians and reptiles from 289 localities spanning 13 successive geological time zones in the South Urals basin, with a profound loss of genera and families and simplification of ecosystems.