The timing and pattern of biotic recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction

  title={The timing and pattern of biotic recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction},
  author={Zhong‐Qiang Chen and Michael J. Benton},
  journal={Nature Geoscience},
The aftermath of the great end-Permian period mass extinction 252 Myr ago shows how life can recover from the loss of >90% species globally. The crisis was triggered by a number of physical environmental shocks (global warming, acid rain, ocean acidification and ocean anoxia), and some of these were repeated over the next 5-6 Myr. Ammonoids and some other groups diversified rapidly, within 1-3 Myr, but extinctions continued through the Early Triassic period. Triassic ecosystems were rebuilt… 

Figures from this paper

Dynamic interplay between climate and marine biodiversity upheavals during the early Triassic Smithian -Spathian biotic crisis
Abstract In the aftermath of the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction (~252 Ma) ― the most dramatic biotic crisis of the Phanerozoic ― changes in climate, the carbon cycle, and biodiversity
Early Triassic Marine Biotic Recovery: The Predators' Perspective
The data indicate that marine ecosystems characterized by multiple trophic levels existed from the earliest Early Triassic onwards, and that a major change in the taxonomic composition of predatory guilds occurred less than two million years after the end-Permian extinction event, in which a transition from fish/amphibian to fish/reptile-dominated higher troPHic levels within ecosystems became apparent.
Environmental controls on marine ecosystem recovery following mass extinctions, with an example from the Early Triassic
Abstract The recovery of marine ecosystems following a mass extinction event involves an extended interval of increasing biotic diversity and ecosystem complexity. The pace of recovery may be
The main stage of recovery after the end-Permian mass extinction: taxonomic rediversification and ecologic reorganization of marine level-bottom communities during the Middle Triassic
The Early Triassic lag phase represents the time when the reduced species richness in the wake of the end-Permian mass extinction was insufficient for stimulating major diversifications, whereas the Anisian main diversification event started when self-accelerating processes became effective and stopped when niche-crowding prevented further diversification.
The End-Permian Mass Extinction
Ichnologic approaches have been key to the understanding of causes and consequences of the end-Permian mass extinction event ever since researchers began to focus on this pivotal episode in the
Decoupled taxonomic and ecological recoveries from the Permo-Triassic extinction
It is shown that marine ecosystems dominated by non-motile animals shifted to ones dominated by nektonic groups after the extinction of Permian-Triassic animals, suggesting that a process of vacant niche filling before reaching the maximum environmental carrying capacity is independent of ecosystem structure building.
Life in the Aftermath of Mass Extinctions
  • P. Hull
  • Medicine, Biology
    Current Biology
  • 2015
The aftermaths of mass extinctions might contribute to the evolutionary importance of such events, and a speed limit might exist for the pace of global biotic change after massive disturbance - a limit set by geosphere-biosphere interactions.
Recovery of lacustrine ecosystems after the end-Permian mass extinction
The end-Permian mass extinction (EPME; ca. 252 Ma) led to profound changes in lacustrine ecosystems. However, whether or not post-extinction recovery of lacustrine ecosystems was delayed has remained
Multicellar life came closest to complete annihilation during the ca.252 Ma Permian–Triassic mass extinction (PTME), which resulted inthe largest crash in global biodiversity since the Cambrian
Evidence from South Africa for a protracted end-Permian extinction on land
A unique dataset comprising hundreds of precisely positioned tetrapod fossils is analyzed, identifying a protracted (∼1 Ma) extinction and the blooming of “disaster taxa” before the main extinction rather than in its aftermath as assumed previously, demonstrating that the effects of biotic crises vary prominently among Earth’s surface environments.


Recovery from the most profound mass extinction of all time
The data showed that though there was an initial rise in cosmopolitanism after the extinction pulses, large drops subsequently occurred and, counter-intuitively, a surprisingly low level of cosmopolitanist was sustained through the Early and Middle Triassic.
Terrestrial–marine teleconnections in the collapse and rebuilding of Early Triassic marine ecosystems
Abstract The latest Permian mass extinction (LPE), just prior to the Permian–Triassic boundary at ~ 252 Ma, resulted in the disappearance of ~ 90% of skeletonized marine taxa and the replacement of
Events during Early Triassic recovery from the end-Permian extinction
The Palaeozoic–Mesozoic transition is characterized not only by the biggest Phanerozoic mass extinction, at the end of Permian, but also a prolonged period of recovery of the biota during the
Delayed recovery of non-marine tetrapods after the end-Permian mass extinction tracks global carbon cycle
It is demonstrated that non-marine tetrapods were severely affected by the end-Permian mass extinction, and that these assemblages did not begin to recover until the Middle Triassic, consistent with the idea that unstable low-diversity post-extinction ecosystems were subject to boom–bust cycles.
Recovery tempo and pattern of marine ecosystems after the end-Permian mass extinction
High-resolution sampling of more than 10,000 microfossils from seven Late Permian−Middle Triassic paleoequatorial sections in south China refutes claims for a 5 m.y. recovery delay after the
Good Genes and Good Luck: Ammonoid Diversity and the End-Permian Mass Extinction
Analysis of a global diversity data set of ammonoid genera covering about 106 million years centered on the Permian-Triassic boundary shows that Triassic ammonoids actually reached levels of diversity higher than in the PerMian less than 2 million years after the PTB.
How to kill (almost) all life: the end-Permian extinction event
The extinction model involves global warming by 6°C and huge input of light carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system from the eruptions, but especially from gas hydrates, leading to an ever-worsening positive-feedback loop, the ‘runaway greenhouse'.
Ecosystem remodelling among vertebrates at the Permian–Triassic boundary in Russia
The nature of the event in Russia is document in a comprehensive survey of 675 specimens of amphibians and reptiles from 289 localities spanning 13 successive geological time zones in the South Urals basin, with a profound loss of genera and families and simplification of ecosystems.
Recovery of the Triassic land flora from the end-Permian life crisis
Abstract The recovery of the Triassic land flora after the end-Permian biotic crisis has not been studied in detail except in North China where examination of a complete sequence of Permian–Triassic
Rapid vertebrate recuperation in the Karoo Basin of South Africa following the End-Permian extinction
The mass extinction that occurred at the end of the Permian Period approximately 251 Mya is widely accepted as the most devastating extinction event in Earth’s history. An estimated 75–90% of global