The three-dimensional structure of fish schools

@article{Partridge2004TheTS,
  title={The three-dimensional structure of fish schools},
  author={Brian L. Partridge and Tony j. Pitcher and J. Michael Cullen and John Wilson},
  journal={Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology},
  year={2004},
  volume={6},
  pages={277-288}
}
Summary1.Methods for producing and analyzing long-term three-dimensional records of the positions of individuals within fish schools are described. Detailed analysis of internal structure and overall shapes of schools of three species which school to varying degrees are reported: Data from cod (Gadus morhua), a weak facultative schooler, saithe (Pollachius virens), a strong facultative schooler, and herring (Clupea harengus), an obligate schooler, are presented.2.Fish do not position themselves… 
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TLDR
Extensive data is presented from experiments on cruising schools of saithe, herring and cod to validate the whole-school method and derive a computation which eliminates bias from outliers.
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The three-dimensional structure of flocks of dunlin, Calidris alpina, and starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, was studied while birds were in transit between feeding, loafing and roosting sites and it is indicated that dunlin have a tighter, more compact flock structure than do starlings.
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The sensory basis of fish schools: Relative roles of lateral line and vision
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The role of the lateral line in schooling is much greater than has been recognised previously and is suggested to be maintained by opposing forces of attraction and repulsion mediated by stimuli perceived by the visual and lateralis systems respectively.
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TLDR
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TLDR
A hypothesis on the nature of the schooling behaviour of fish based on an ethological investigation of schooling is presented, suggesting that with increasing reproductive motivation male Gasterosteus cease schooling and try to hold territories and Females disperse to a limited extent.
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