The theory of unequal ecological exchange: a Marx-Odum dialectic

@article{Foster2014TheTO,
  title={The theory of unequal ecological exchange: a Marx-Odum dialectic},
  author={John Bellamy Foster and Hannah Holleman},
  journal={Journal of Peasant Studies},
  year={2014},
  volume={41},
  pages={199 - 233}
}
A world-system analysis of the ecological rift generated by capitalism requires as one of its elements a developed theory of the unequal ecological exchange between center and periphery. After reviewing the literature on unequal exchange (both economic and ecological) from Ricardo and Marx to the present, a new approach is provided, based on a critical appropriation of systems ecologist Howard Odum's emergy (spelled with an m) analysis. Odum's contribution offers key elements of a wider… 
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