The testing effect in free recall is associated with enhanced organizational processes

  title={The testing effect in free recall is associated with enhanced organizational processes},
  author={Franklin Zaromb and Henry L. Roediger},
  journal={Memory \& Cognition},
In two experiments with categorized lists, we asked whether the testing effect in free recall is related to enhancements in organizational processing. During a first phase in Experiment 1, subjects studied one list over eight consecutive trials, they studied another list six times while taking two interspersed recall tests, and they learned a third list in four alternating study and test trials. On a test 2 days later, recall was directly related to the number of tests and inversely related to… 
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Establishing and explaining the testing effect in free recall for young children.
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The negative testing and negative generation effects are eliminated by delay.
The results uncover important similarities between the mnemonic effects of retrieving information from episodic (testing effect) and semantic (generation effect) memory and the pattern of forgetting across delay has relevance for accounts of the Testing × Retention interaction.
Does the benefit of testing depend on lag, and if so, why? Evaluating the elaborative retrieval hypothesis
Across two experiments, final-test performance was greater following practice testing than following restudy only, and this memorial advantage was greater with long-lag than with short-lag practice testing, which provided consistent evidence for the ERH.


Total retrieval time and hypermnesia: Investigating the benefits of multiple recall tests
Single and repeated recall tests of equal total duration are not functionally equivalent, but rather produce differences observable in subsequent recall tests.
The influence of retrieval on retention
The results reject the hypothesis that a successful retrieval is beneficial only to the extent that it provides another study experience, as performing a memory retrieval (TTST condition) led to better performance than pure study (pure ST condition).
Test-Enhanced Learning
Investigation of the testing effect with educationally relevant materials and whether testing facilitates learning only because tests offer an opportunity to restudy material concluded that testing is a powerful means of improving learning, not just assessing it.
Test format and corrective feedback modify the effect of testing on long-term retention
We investigated the effects of format of an initial test and whether or not students received corrective feedback on that test on a final test of retention 3 days later. In Experiment 1, subjects
Generalizing test-enhanced learning from the laboratory to the classroom
Three experiments that extend the testing effect of brief articles, lectures, and materials in a college course to educationally relevant materials demonstrated a robust testing effect and revealed that an initial short-answer test produced greater gains on a final test than did an initial multiple-choice test.
Repeated testing produces superior transfer of learning relative to repeated studying.
  • A. C. Butler
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 2010
Repeated testing produced superior retention and transfer on the final test relative to repeated studying, indicating that the mnemonic benefits of test-enhanced learning are not limited to the retention of the specific response tested during initial learning but rather extend to the transfer of knowledge in a variety of contexts.
The effects of free recall testing on subsequent source memory
It is discovered that memory is differentially enhanced for certain recollective details depending on the nature of the free recall task, and how different kinds of memorial details are enhanced by free recall testing.