The testing effect, collaborative learning, and retrieval-induced facilitation in a classroom setting

  title={The testing effect, collaborative learning, and retrieval-induced facilitation in a classroom setting},
  author={Jacquelyn Cranney and Mi-ri Ahn and Rachel D. McKinnon and Sue Morris and Kaaren J. Watts},
  journal={European Journal of Cognitive Psychology},
  pages={919 - 940}
Two studies were conducted to investigate aspects of the test effect in a tertiary education setting. During weekly tutorial sessions first year psychology students watched a psychobiology video (Phase 1), followed by different video-related activities (Phase 2). In the tutorial 1 week later, students took an unexpected test (Phase 3). In Phase 2 of Study 1, students completed a quiz in small groups (group quiz) or individually (individual quiz), highlighted the video transcript (re-study), or… 

Low-Stakes Quizzes Improve Learning and Reduce Overconfidence in College Students

Retrieval practice is a straightforward and effective way to improve student learning, and its efficacy has been demonstrated repeatedly in the laboratory and in the classroom. In the current study,

Four Semesters Investigating Frequency of Testing, the Testing Effect, and Transfer of Training

We carried out 4 semester-long studies of student performance in a college research methods course (total N = 588). Two sections of it were taught each semester with systematic and controlled

Team-Based Testing Improves Individual Learning

In two experiments, 90 undergraduates took six tests as part of an educational psychology course. Using a crossover design, students took three tests individually without feedback and then took the

The testing effect: The role of feedback and collaboration in a tertiary classroom setting

SUMMARY Successful retrieval on a test compared to just re-studying material improves long-term retention—a phenomenon called the ‘testing effect’. This study investigated the role of feedback and

Examining the Testing Effect in University Teaching: Retrievability and Question Format Matter

Examining the testing effect in its pure form by implementing a minimal intervention design in a university lecture suggests that short-answer testing but not multiple-choice testing may benefit learning in higher education contexts.

The Testing Effect in the Psychology Classroom: A Meta-Analytic Perspective

The testing effect is a robust empirical finding in the research on learning and instruction, demonstrating that taking tests during the learning phase facilitates later retrieval from long-term

Rethinking the Use of Tests: A Meta-Analysis of Practice Testing

The testing effect is a well-known concept referring to gains in learning and retention that can occur when students take a practice test on studied material before taking a final test on the same

Group discussions and test-enhanced learning: individual learning outcomes and personality characteristics

It is shown that testing trumps discussion groups from a learning perspective, and the discussion groups were also the least beneficial learning context for those scoring low on NFC.

Retrieval Practice in Classroom Settings: A Review of Applied Research

Tests have been vastly used for the assessment of learning in educational contexts. Recently, however, a growing body of research have shown that the practice of remembering previously studied

Ecological Validity of the Testing Effect

The testing effect is the enhanced retention of learned information by individuals who have studied and completed a test over the material relative to individuals who have only studied the material.



Testing the testing effect in the classroom

Laboratory studies show that taking a test on studied material promotes subsequent learning and retention of that material on a final test (termed the testing effect). Educational research has

Student retention of course content is improved by collaborative-group testing.

Student retention of course content was reduced and student retention was improved when students completed the original examinations in groups, and results suggest that collaborative testing is an effective strategy to enhance learning and increase student retention of Course content.

Testing improves long-term retention in a simulated classroom setting

The benefits of testing on long-term retention of lecture material were examined in a simulated classroom setting. Participants viewed a series of three lectures on consecutive days and engaged in a


This paper reports on a new movement in cognitive studies that focuses on understanding and promoting collaborative learning. First, learning goals are redefined and a theoretical explanation of how

Retrieval-induced facilitation: initially nontested material can benefit from prior testing of related material.

Three experiments examined how taking an initial test affects later memory for prose materials not initially tested, showing that testing enhanced recall 24 hr later for the initially nontested material.

Test format and corrective feedback modify the effect of testing on long-term retention

We investigated the effects of format of an initial test and whether or not students received corrective feedback on that test on a final test of retention 3 days later. In Experiment 1, subjects

The Power of Testing Memory: Basic Research and Implications for Educational Practice

This article selectively review laboratory studies that reveal the power of testing in improving retention and then turns to studies that demonstrate the basic effects in educational settings, including the related concepts of dynamic testing and formative assessment.

Assessment and Classroom Learning

ABSTRACT This article is a review of the literature on classroom formative assessment. Several studies show firm evidence that innovations designed to strengthen the frequent feedback that students

Tests and test feedback as learning sources

Retrieval-induced forgetting in educational contexts: Monitoring, expertise, text integration, and test format

Retrieval practice leads to the impaired recall of related but unpractised items, an effect termed retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). Two experiments showed that RIF occurred with “real world”