In this study, we synthesized a series of enantiomerically pure (2R,3S)-disubstituted tetrahydropyranes with diverse functional groups using known methodologies. In addition to the tert-butyl dimethyl silyl group, other common protecting groups for hydroxyl groups such as allyl, acetate, and benzoate were used to obtain appropriate derivatives. Pure compounds were evaluated in vitro against HL60 human leukemia cells and MCF7 human breast cancer cells. From the growth inhibition data a structure-activity relationship was obtained. Overall the results point to the relevant role of the tert-butyl dimethyl silyl group in the modulation of cytotoxic activity.