The temporal dynamics of two response-focused forms of emotion regulation: experiential, expressive, and autonomic consequences.

  title={The temporal dynamics of two response-focused forms of emotion regulation: experiential, expressive, and autonomic consequences.},
  author={Elise S Dan-Glauser and James Jonathan Gross},
  volume={48 9},
This study examines the early affective consequences of two close forms of suppression. Participants (N=37) were shown negative, positive, and neutral pictures and cued either to attend to the pictures, or to perform expressive or physiological suppression (i.e., reduce body reactions). Continuous measures of experience, expressivity, and autonomic responses showed that both suppression strategies produced rapid response modulation. Common effects of the two strategies included a transient… 
The simultaneous use of Emotional suppression and Situation selection to regulate emotions incrementally favors physiological responses
The combinatorial effect of emotion regulation strategies is different according to the emotional response that the individual needs to regulate, and the simultaneous use of Situation selection and Emotional suppression could be particularly beneficial to relieve physiological symptoms.
Reappraising suppression: subjective and physiological correlates of experiential suppression in healthy adults
Findings demonstrate that experiential suppression may represent an adaptive emotion regulation mechanism associated with reduced arousal and cardiovascular activation.
Emotion regulation and emotion coherence: evidence for strategy-specific effects.
These findings help to clarify the nature of emotion response coherence by showing how different forms of emotion regulation may differentially affect it.
The temporal dynamics of cognitive reappraisal: cardiovascular consequences of downregulation of negative emotion and upregulation of positive emotion.
The results indicate that cognitive reappraisal engenders adaptive hemodynamic profiles both during anticipation and during viewing of affective images depending on their valence and the regulatory goal.
Time course of emotion-related responding during distraction and reappraisal.
Investigating their temporal brain dynamics using event-related potentials (ERPs) and their patterns of facial expressive behavior supports the process model of ER, separating subtypes of cognitive strategies based on their specific time course.
Emotion regulation and the temporal dynamics of emotions: Effects of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression on emotional inertia
The effects of suppression and reappraisal on the temporal dynamics of emotions depend on the valence and emotional response component in question, and neither suppression nor reappRAisal were associated with the inertia of subjective feelings in either study.
Differentiating electrophysiological response to decrease and increase negative emotion regulation
It was found that negative pictures elicited more positive P2 and late positivity potential (LPP) deflections than neutral pictures and the decrease-emotion condition elicited larger LPPs.
Reappraisal but not suppression downregulates the experience of positive and negative emotion.
Investigation of the consequences of using expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal to downregulate positive and negative emotion within a single design shows that suppression is an appropriate strategy when one wishes to reduce positive emotion displays while maintaining the benefits of positive emotional experience.


Antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation: divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology.
  • J. Gross
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1998
Reappraisal decreased disgust experience, whereas suppression increased sympathetic activation, suggesting that these 2 emotion regulatory processes may have different adaptive consequences.
Suppression and enhancement of emotional responses to unpleasant pictures.
In a sample of 48 college students, both eyeblink startle magnitude and corrugator activity were sensitive to experimental manipulation, suggesting voluntary regulation of short-term emotional responses to unpleasant visual stimuli.
Emotional suppression: physiology, self-report, and expressive behavior.
Emotional suppression reduced expressive behavior and produced a mixed physiological state characterized by decreased somatic activity and decreased heart rate, along with increased blinking and indications of increased sympathetic nervous system activity.
Hiding feelings: the acute effects of inhibiting negative and positive emotion.
Physiologically, suppression had no effect in the neutral film, but clear effects in both negative and positive emotional films, including increased sympathetic activation of the cardiovascular system.
The Neural Bases of Emotion Regulation: Reappraisal and Suppression of Negative Emotion
The emotion probe. Studies of motivation and attention.
  • P. Lang
  • Psychology, Biology
    The American psychologist
  • 1995
Using a large emotional picture library, reliable affective psychophysiologies are shown, defined by the judged valence (appetitive/pleasant or aversive/unpleasant) and arousal of picture percepts.
Emotion regulation and the dynamics of feelings: a conceptual and methodological framework.
The thesis developed here is that feelings-the private mental experience of emotion-play a crucial role in emotion regulation, and it is shown that emotion regulation can be studied by looking at the variability of feelings.
Respiratory feedback in the generation of emotion
This article reports two studies investigating the relationship between emotional feelings and respiration. In the first study, participants were asked to produce an emotion of either joy, anger,