From 1974 to 1995, 40 patients were treated surgically at the University Hospital Vrije, Universiteit Amsterdam for recurrent or residual pleomorphic adenomas of the parotid gland after previous surgery. The median interval between the initial procedure and surgery for the recurrence was 122 months. Eleven patients had one or more attempts to resect tumor recurrences prior to referral. During reoperation at this institution it was decided to refrain from tumor resection in three patients. Tumor control in two of these patients was achieved using radiotherapy. In the third patient a “wait-and-see” policy was adopted. The other 37 patients underwent en bloc surgical excisions of their tumor and/or previously incised tissues. Among the 36 patients operated for histopathologically benign disease, 16 received postoperative radiotherapy (to 6500 cGy). None developed a further recurrence, the median follow-up being 106 months. Only one of these patients experienced permanent segmental facial nerve paralysis. Malignant transformation of tumor occurred in two patients. One of these patients died of locoregional disease after surgery and radiotherapy. Radical tumor resection was deferred in the other patient, with tumor control achieved using radiotherapy (7000 cGy). However, since recurrent disease tends to be multifocal in origin, prolonged routine follow-up is required.