The support of autonomy and the control of behavior.

  title={The support of autonomy and the control of behavior.},
  author={Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  volume={53 6},
  • E. Deci, R. Ryan
  • Published 1 December 1987
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
In this article we suggest that events and contexts relevant to the initiation and regulation of intentional behavior can function either to support autonomy (i.e., to promote choice) or to control behavior (i.e., to pressure one toward specific outcomes). Research herein reviewed indicates that this distinction is relevant to specific external events and to general interpersonal contexts as well as to specific internal events and to general personality orientations. That is, the distinction is… 
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Psychological needs and the facilitation of integrative processes.
  • R. Ryan
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of personality
  • 1995
This work conceptually link the notion of integrative tendencies to specific developmental processes, namely intrinsic motivation; internalization; and emotional integration, which are shown to be facilitated by conditions that fulfill psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, and forestalled within contexts that frustrate these needs.


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