• Corpus ID: 8109356

The super-eruption of Toba, did it cause a human bottleneck?

@inproceedings{GathorneHardya2003TheSO,
  title={The super-eruption of Toba, did it cause a human bottleneck?},
  author={F. J. Gathorne-Hardya and W. E. H. Harcourt-Smithb},
  year={2003}
}
Lake Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia, is the site of the largest volcanic explosion in the late Pleistocene, which occurred about 73,500 ( 2000) years ago (Chesner et al., 1991, Bühring & Sarnthein 2000). It has been asserted by Ambrose (1998) and others (Rampino & Self 1992, Rampino & Ambrose 2000, Rampino 2002) that the eruption gave rise to a “volcanic winter” of such a catastrophic scale that it caused a human population bottleneck. In this note we discuss the probable effect of the Toba eruption… 

The potential impact of super‐volcanic eruptions on the Earth's atmosphere

In the last 50 years, three large volcanic eruptions have perturbed weather patterns across the whole globe: the eruptions of Agung in Bali, Indonesia in 1963; El Chichon in Mexico in 1982; and Mt

Did the Toba volcanic eruption of 74 ka B.P. produce widespread glaciation

[1] It has been suggested that the Toba volcanic eruption, approximately 74 ka B.P., was responsible for the extended cooling period and ice sheet advance immediately following it, but previous

A large magmatic sill complex beneath the Toba caldera

TLDR
Ambient-noise seismic tomography below the Toba caldera is used to observe the anisotropy that is interpreted as the expression of a fine-scale layering caused by the presence of many partially molten sills in the crust below 7 kilometers, demonstrating that the magmatic reservoirs of present (non-eroded) supervolcanoes can be formed as large sill complexes.

The feeder system of the Toba supervolcano from the slab to the shallow reservoir

TLDR
A new seismic tomography model is shown, which clearly reveals a complex multilevel plumbing system beneath Toba that leads to the formation of a shallow crustal reservoir that is directly responsible for the supereruptions.

Tephra, tephrochronology and archaeology – a (re-)view from Northern Europe

Volcanic eruptions are often, although by no means always, associated with a profuse output of fine pyroclastic material, tephra. While residence time in the atmosphere of the very finest of these

Yellowstone Super-Volcano: Evalutaion, Potential Threats, and Possible effects on Nebraska Citizens Health and Prosperity

Yellowstone National Park is located over a hot spot under the North American tectonic plate and holds a potentially explosive super-volcano that has the ability to cause deadly consequences on the

Four New Horsemen of an Apocalypse? Solar Flares, Super-volcanoes, Pandemics, and Artificial Intelligence

If economists have largely failed to predict or prevent the Global Financial Crisis in 2008, and the more disastrous economic collapse associated with the pandemic of 2020, what else is the

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 27 REFERENCES

Testing for causal relationships between large pyroclastic volcanic eruptions and mass extinctions

The Permo/Triassic mass extinction, the most extensive of all Phanerozoic extinctions [Erwin, 1990], has been correlated with both massive pyroclastic eruptions [Yang and Yin, 1987; Yin et al., 1989;

Eruptive history of Earth's largest Quaternary caldera (Toba, Indonesia) clarified

Single-grain laser-fusion {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar analyses of individual sanidine phenocrysts from the two youngest Toba (Indonesia) tuffs yield mean ages of 73{plus minus}4 and 501{plus minus}5 ka. In

New occurrence of Youngest Toba Tuff in abyssal sediments of the Central Indian Basin

Potential atmospheric impact of the Toba Mega‐Eruption ∼71,000 years ago

An {approx}6 year-long period of volcanic sulfate recorded in the GISP2 ice core about 71,000 {+-} 5000 years ago may provide detailed information on the atmospheric and climate impact in the Toba

Dispersal of ash in the great Toba eruption, 75 ka

One of Earth9s largest known eruptions, the Toba eruption of 75 ka, erupted a minimum of 2800 km 3 of magma, of which at least 800 km 3 was deposited as ash fall. This ash may be entirely of

Use of paleo-records in determining variability within the volcanism climate system

Toba ash layers in the South China Sea: Evidence of contrasting wind directions during eruption ca. 74 ka

Two cores from the southern South China Sea contain discrete ash layers that mainly consist of rhyolithic glass shards. On the basis of the SPECMAP time scale, the ash layers were dated to ca. 74 ka,

Quaternary rainforest refugia in south‐east Asia: using termites (Isoptera) as indicators

TLDR
This work investigated the geographical extent of the savannah vegetation and the positions of the refugia, using a combination of palynonlogical, geological, fossil and termite data to show that during the Last Glacial Maximum, most of Thailand, Peninsula Malaysia, western and southern Borneo, eastern and southern Sumatra, and Java were probably covered by savannah.