The subscapularis: anatomy, injury, and imaging

  title={The subscapularis: anatomy, injury, and imaging},
  author={Yoav Morag and David A. Jamadar and Bruce S. Miller and Qian Dong and Jon A. Jacobson},
  journal={Skeletal Radiology},
The subscapularis is the largest and most powerful of the rotator cuff muscles and fulfills an important role in glenohumeral movement and stability. The spectrum and implications of subscapularis muscle or tendon injury differ from injury to other rotator cuff components because of its unique structure and function. Diagnosing subscapularis injury is clinically difficult and assessment of subscapularis integrity may be limited during arthroscopy or open surgery. Diagnostic imaging plays an… 

Tears of the Subscapularis Tendon: A Critical Analysis Review

Nonoperative treatment is the primary option for subscapularis tendon tears, but surgery may be considered for acute traumatic tears and tears for which nonoperative treatment has failed.

Multi-modal imaging of the subscapularis muscle

Radiologists should be aware of the SSC anatomy, variability in radiological presentation of muscle or tendon injury, and particular mechanisms that may lead to a SSC injury, such as coracoid impingement.

Anterior Instability: What to Look for.

Correlation of MRI with arthroscopy for the evaluation of the subscapularis tendon: a musculoskeletal division’s experience

This study reflects a musculoskeletal radiology section’s experience with the diagnosis of subscapularis tendon pathology, demonstrating that MRI could be used to accurately evaluate the subscapULARis tendon.

Axillary Sonography of the Shoulder: An Adjunctive Approach

  • P. MichelinJ. Legrand F. Duparc
  • Medicine
    Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • 2018
The aim of this pictorial essay is to technically describe this approach and the normal musculoskeletal sonographic anatomy of the region and to present the sonographic findings of shoulder disorders that may be helpfully explored this technique.

Rotator Cuff

In this course, the different rotator cuff tears and its differential diagnosis are reviewed and this information should stand out in the authors' reports.

Imaging in anterior glenohumeral instability.

The authors distinguish the findings that occur in the acutely traumatized shoulder from those that typify the chronic unstable joint, including magnetic resonance arthrography and the value of specialized imaging positions.

MR imaging of subscapularis tendon injury in the setting of anterior shoulder dislocation

C careful MR assessment of the subscapularis tendon by the radiologist is indicated in the setting of ASD as injury of this structure can be symptomatic and may be amenable to treatment.

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This article focuses on performing a LTO in anatomic TSA and will review the surgical technique and advantages in exposure in addition to biomechanical and clinical outcomes.



Subscapularis Tendon Tears

  • R. LyonsA. Green
  • Medicine
    The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
  • 2005
Tears of the subscapularis tendon portend a different prognosis than do supraspinatus tendon tears, especially when the injury is acute and diagnosis is delayed.

The comma sign: An arthroscopic guide to the torn subscapularis tendon.

  • I. LoS. Burkhart
  • Medicine
    Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association
  • 2003
The authors have found the "comma sign," an arc formed by a portion of the superior glenohumeral ligament/coracohumERAL ligament complex, to be a useful marker of the superolateral corner of the torn subscapularis tendon.

The etiology and assessment of subscapularis tendon tears: a case for subcoracoid impingement, the roller-wringer effect, and TUFF lesions of the subscapularis.

  • I. LoS. Burkhart
  • Medicine
    Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association
  • 2003

[Rotator cuff ruptures with predominant involvement of the subscapular tendon].

Among the all rotator cuff tears, the subscapularis lesions are quite rare. But a careful analysis leads to recognize them specially in case of antero-medial impingement between the coracoid process

Rotator interval lesion.

Evidence is presented for the importance of diagnosis and treatment of RI lesions in patients with persistent pain in the shoulder and for a close fit of the supraspinatus and the subscapularis attachments.

Isolated rupture of the tendon of the subscapularis muscle. Clinical features in 16 cases.

A simple clinical manoeuvre called the 'lift-off test', reliably diagnosed or excluded clinically relevant rupture of the subscapularis tendon, and repair of the ruptured tendon was technically demanding and required good exposure to identify and protect the axillary nerve.

Anatomy and functional aspects of the rotator interval.

The anatomy of the region between the supraspinatus and subscapularis tendons, called the rotator interval, was studied in 22 shoulders of 12 cadavers. Its function was then examined by sequential

Subscapularis tendon tear: an anatomic and clinical investigation.

The subscapularis muscle and its glenohumeral ligament-like bands

In any anterior approach to the glenohumeral joint for fracture fixation, joint replacement, and soft tissue reconstruction, a thorough understanding of the distri bution pattern of the subscapularis bands is essential.

Tears in the subscapularis tendon: descriptive analysis and results of surgical repair.