The structure of phenotypic personality traits.

  title={The structure of phenotypic personality traits.},
  author={Lewis R. Goldberg},
  journal={The American psychologist},
  volume={48 1},
This personal historical article traces the development of the Big-Five factor structure, whose growing acceptance by personality researchers has profoundly influenced the scientific study of individual differences. The roots of this taxonomy lie in the lexical hypothesis and the insights of Sir Francis Galton, the prescience of L. L. Thurstone, the legacy of Raymond B. Cattell, and the seminal analyses of Tupes and Christal. Paradoxically, the present popularity of this model owes much to its… 

The Measurement of Personality across Cultures

The present article discusses historical, conceptual, and methodological issues associated with the cross-cultural measurement of personality. It documents the extensive debate and discussion that

Solid ground in the wetlands of personality: a reply to Block.

Evidence shows strong support for the five-factor model of personality beyond the lexical and questionnaire traditions he reviews, which is likely to be more fruitful when used in conjunction with established knowledge about the structure of personality traits: the FFM.

Personality Trait Development in Adulthood

In the middle part of the 20th century, a healthy dialogue existed between sociology and personality psychology. Leading scholars in sociology actively discussed the relationship between social

The General Factor of Personality: Ten Years After

According to the empirical and theoretical research in past ten years, the General Factor of Personality (GFP) was interpreted as the highest-order (most general) personality dimension, which

Evolutionary Perspectives of Personality

This chapter outlines some of the evolutionary approaches that lend to a fuller understanding of individual differences related to personality psychology and presents a review of contemporary evolutionary models ofindividual differences with particular focus on personality traits.

A defence of the lexical approach to the study of personality structure

In recent years there have been many investigations of personality structure, and much of this research has been based on the lexical strategy for finding the major personality dimensions. However,

Unusual Configurations of Personality Traits Indicate Multiple Patterns of Their Coalescence

It is proposed that the customary five-factor structure is only a near-universal, because it does not fit all individuals but only a large majority of them.

Personality Correlates of One's Image of Jesus: Historiographic Analysis Using the Five-Factor Model of Personality

This research obtained ratings of Jesus on a comprehensive, well-validated personality instrument, the Adjective Check List. Ratings from 77 women and 38 men (ages 17 to 75) were obtained, and the

The substantive nature of psycholexical personality factors: a comparison across languages.

The psycholexical approach to personality structure in American English has led to the Big Five factors, and the generality of Big Five Factor III (Conscientiousness) is supported.



An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications.

It is argued that the five-factor model of personality should prove useful both for individual assessment and for the elucidation of a number of topics of interest to personality psychologists.

An alternative "description of personality": the big-five factor structure.

  • L. R. Goldberg
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1990
The generality of this 5-factor model is here demonstrated across unusually comprehensive sets of trait terms, which suggest their potential utility as Big-Five markers in future studies.

Principal dimensions of child personality as inferred from teachers' judgments.

It is suggested that the structure of child personality is both complex and perhaps quite similar to that of the adult, that is, that the same fundamental dimensions are involved.

The Developing structure of temperament and personality from infancy to adulthood

Contents: Preface. Part I: Current Conceptions of the Structure of Adult Personality. L.R. Goldberg, T.K. Rosolak, The Big Five Factor Structure as an Integrative Framework: An Empirical Comparison

Extension of the Interpersonal Adjective Scales to include the Big Five dimensions of personality.

Recent recognition that the dominance and nurturance dimensions of the interpersonal circumplex correspond closely to the surgency/extraversion and agreeableness dimensions of the five-factor model

Factors In The Natural Language Of Personality: Re-Analysis, Comparison, And Interpretation Of Six Major Studies.

Re-analysis of the correlations of six studies indicated that the domain appears to be well described by five factors, with some suggestion of a sixth, and the five factors were related across studies, using the Kaiser-Hunka-Bianchini method.

Integration of the big five and circumplex approaches to trait structure.

The AB5C solution is compared with simple-structure and lower dimensional circumplex solutions, and its integrative and corrective potential are discussed, as well as its limitations.

Updating Norman's "Adequate Taxonomy": intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and in questionnaires.

The relations among culture, conscientiousness, openness, and intelligence are discussed, and it is concluded that mental ability is a separate factor, though related to openness to experience.


To satisfy the need in personality research for factorially univocal measures of each of the 5 domains that subsume most English-language terms for personality-traits, new sets of Big-Five factor