The structure of cytochrome b562 from Escherichia coli has been determined at 2.5 A resolution by x-ray diffraction methods. Protein phases were computed by the single isomorphous replacement method with anomalous scattering measurements from the native and uranyl acetate-substituted crystals. The electron density was averaged about the noncrystallographic 2-fold axis relating 2 molecules in the triclinic unit cell. The protein consists of four nearly parallel alpha helices and represents a new class of cytochrome structure. The heme group is inserted between the helices near one end of the molecule with one heme face partially exposed to solvent. The two heme ligands are histidine and methionine. The 2 phenylalanines are packed internally near the heme group, and the 2 tyrosines are on the surface, also near the heme group. The folding of the protein resembles that of hemerythrin and tobacco mosaic virus protein and shows a different topology from that of cytochrome b5, cytochrome c, or the globins.