The structure and synthesis of the fungal cell wall

  title={The structure and synthesis of the fungal cell wall},
  author={Shaun M. Bowman and Stephen J. Free},
The fungal cell wall is a dynamic structure that protects the cell from changes in osmotic pressure and other environmental stresses, while allowing the fungal cell to interact with its environment. The structure and biosynthesis of a fungal cell wall is unique to the fungi, and is therefore an excellent target for the development of anti‐fungal drugs. The structure of the fungal cell wall and the drugs that target its biosynthesis are reviewed. Based on studies in a number of fungi, the cell… 
The Fungal Cell Wall: Candida, Cryptococcus, and Aspergillus Species
Recent data on the composition and synthesis, influence of the components of the cell wall in fungi-host interaction and the role as a target for the next generation of antifungal drugs in yeasts and filamentous fungi are reviewed.
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The filamentous fungal cell wall is adapted to extremely rapid deposition and growth at the hyphal tip and an ability to penetrate hard surfaces, and the significance of the cell wall as a target for antifungals has long been appreciated.
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Information is provided here about in vitro analysis of the biosynthetic activities of the main fungal wall and some methods for rapid analysis of cell wall composition by using specific enzymatic degradations that provide powerful tools to evaluate changes in fungal cell walls.
The fungal cell wall: Modern concepts of its composition and biological function
The functional role of the fungal CW is discussed in juxtaposition to the surface structures of higher eukaryotes.
Unlocking the Therapeutic Potential of the Fungal Cell Wall: Clinical Implications and Drug Resistance
The development of a molecule that non-competitively inhibits chitin synthesis and/or impairs cell wall integrity response regulatory pathways may impact the cell wall in such a way that reduces its compensatory ability.
Molecular architecture of fungal cell walls revealed by solid-state NMR
This study provides a high-resolution model of fungal cell walls and serves as the basis for assessing drug response to promote the development of wall-targeted antifungals.
Fungal cell wall organization and biosynthesis.
  • S. Free
  • Biology, Engineering
    Advances in genetics
  • 2013
Antifungal Agents That Target Fungal Cell Wall Components : A Review
The fungal cell wall represents an exclusive structure that confers mechanical strength and osmotic resistance to fungal cells that is the predominant target for therapeutic applications and developments of antifungals.
Altering the fungal cell wall integrity and practical aspects of these modifications
The genetic engineering of the cell wall of Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Neurospora, S. cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces and others is discussed and the consequences of direct changes in the synthesis of cell wall components, especially those affecting protein production and secretion by the mutants and their sensitivity to antifungal agents are highlighted.
Fungal chitinases: function, regulation, and potential roles in plant/pathogen interactions
In the past decades our knowledge about fungal cell wall architecture increased tremendously and led to the identification of many enzymes involved in polysaccharide synthesis and remodeling, which


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Regulatory mechanisms that act on chitin and beta(1----3) glucan synthetase indicate how localized biosynthesis can be achieved in the fungal cell.
Dynamics of cell wall structure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
All five mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in bakers' yeast affect the cell wall, and additional cell wall-related signaling routes have been identified and some potential targets for new antifungal compounds related to cell wall construction are discussed.
Aspergillus fumigatus cell wall: composition and biosynthesis.
Current understanding of the structural organization of the polysaccharides constitutive of the cell wall of Aspergillus fumigatus and of the enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis and remodelling is discussed.
The contribution of cell wall proteins to the organization of the yeast cell wall.
The structure of cell wall alpha-glucan from fission yeast.
The chemical structure of alpha-glucan isolated from wild-type and mutant cell walls of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is described and it is proposed that alpha- glucan biosynthesis involves an ordered series of events, whereby two alpha-GLucan chains are coupled to create mature cell wall alpha-Glucan.
The function of chitin synthases 2 and 3 in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle
Genetic evidence indicated that a mutant lacking all three chitin synthases was inviable; this was confirmed by constructing a triple mutant rescued by a plasmid carrying a CHS2 gene under control of a GAL1 promoter.
Biosynthesis of the yeast cell wall. I. Preparation and properties of beta-(1 leads to 3)glucan synthetase.
The synthesis of the major linkage found in yeast cell wall structural polysaccharides, glucosyl-beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucosyl, was studied with a membrane preparation from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and suggests localized and reversible activation of the enzyme during the cell cycle.
Chitin synthesis in human pathogenic fungi.
It has become clear that certain members of the CHS gene families of fungi are more important for growth, integrity and viability than others, and this knowledge has already led to the design of new classes of antifungal agents that are targeted against key enzyme activities.
Effect of Nikkomycin Z, a chitin-synthase inhibitor, on hyphal growth and cell wall structure of two arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi
Different concentrations of Nikkomycin Z, a competitive inhibitor of chitin-synthase, were applied to the arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi Gigaspora margarita and Glomus intraradices under in vitro conditions to show changes in hyphal morphology, wall thickness and several other changes in the hyphal wall structure and organization.
Cell wall-associated enzymes in fungi.