The structure and development of avian lumbosacral specializations of the vertebral canal and the spinal cord with special reference to a possible function as a sense organ of equilibrium

  title={The structure and development of avian lumbosacral specializations of the vertebral canal and the spinal cord with special reference to a possible function as a sense organ of equilibrium},
  author={Reinhold Necker},
  journal={Anatomy and Embryology},
  • R. Necker
  • Published 21 July 2005
  • Biology
  • Anatomy and Embryology
The avian lumbosacral vertebral column and spinal cord show a number of specializations which have recently been interpreted as a sense organ of equilibrium. This sense organ is thought to support balanced walking on the ground. Although most of the peculiar structures have been described previously, there was a need to reevaluate the specializations with regard to the possible function as a sense organ. Specializations were studied in detail in the adult pigeon. The development of the system… 
Specializations in the lumbosacral vertebral canal and spinal cord of birds: evidence of a function as a sense organ which is involved in the control of walking
  • R. Necker
  • Biology
    Journal of Comparative Physiology A
  • 2006
Birds have two nearly independent kinds of locomotion and it is suggested that two different sense organs play an important role in their respective control: the vestibular organ during flight and the lumbosacral system during walking.
The Balance Hypothesis for the Avian Lumbosacral Organ and an Exploration of Its Morphological Variation
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Structural Insights of the Glycogen Body in Domestic Chicken
The results revealed that the glycogen body is a very delicate, small, ovoid circumventricular, transparent and gelatinous consistency structure embedded in the dorsal part of the lumbosacral region of spinal cord.
Development and evaluation of a technique for spinal anaesthesia in broiler chickens
ABSTRACT Aims To develop a technique for the injection of local anaesthetic into the spinal canal of broiler chickens by first determining the ideal location for needle placement based on anatomy and
Chick spinal accessory lobes contain functional neurons expressing voltagegated sodium channels generating action potentials.
Results clearly indicate that functional neurons expressing fast inactivating and TTXsensitive VGSC which generate action potentials exist in the AL of the chick and further support the proposal that the chick ALs function as the sensory organ of equilibrium.
Natural loss of function of ephrin-B3 shapes spinal flight circuitry in birds
A role for loss of ephrin-B3 function in shaping the avian brachial spinal cord circuitry and facilitating synchronous wing flapping is supported.
From Neural Crest to Definitive Roof Plate: The Dynamic Behavior of the Dorsal Neural Tube
Research on the development of the dorsal neural tube is particularly challenging. In this highly dynamic domain, a temporal transition occurs between early neural crest progenitors that undergo an
Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elevates intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in accessory lobe neurons of the chick
Cholinergic synaptic transmission to the accessory lobe neurons may regulate some cellular functions through muscarinic receptors, and acetylcholine stimulates Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular Ca 2+ stores, which elevates the [Ca2+]i in the somata of accessory lobe neuron, through activation of these receptors.
Glutamate evokes firing through activation of kainate receptors in chick accessory lobe neurons
The results indicate that chick AL neurons express functional kainate receptors to respond to glutamate and suggest that the glutamatergic transmission plays a role in excitatory regulation of AL neurons of the chick.
A Physical Model Suggests That Hip-Localized Balance Sense in Birds Improves State Estimation in Perching: Implications for Bipedal Robots
The engineering approach provides the first quantitative evidence for functional benefits of the LSO balance sense in birds and support notions of control modularity in birds, with preferential vestibular sense for head stability and gaze, and LSO for body balance control, respectively.


Specializations in the lumbosacral spinal cord of birds: morphological and behavioural evidence for a sense of equilibrium.
  • R. Necker
  • Biology
    European journal of morphology
  • 1999
In the present investigation additional morphological specializations are described for the pigeon, which consist of segmentally organized semicircular canal-like structures which together with specializations in the meninges of the spinal Cord form a large liquor space above accessory lobes attached to the spinal cord.
Ultrastructural characterization of the accessory lobes of Lachi in the lumbosacral spinal cord of the pigeon with special reference to intrinsic mechanoreceptors
A complete analysis of the structural basis of segmentally organized accessory lobes in the lumbosacral spinal cord of birds was performed by means of electron microscopy, finding that Glycogen cells and lacunae may contribute to transmission of hydrostatic pressure changes during movements of the body.
The influence of the peripheral field on the morphogenesis of Hofmann's nucleus major of chick spinal cord.
The morphogenesis of the cells of these nuclei is studied and efforts are made to group them with functionally Hofmann's nuclei major and minor.
Development of an Identified Spinal Commissural Interneuron Population in an Amniote: Neurons of the Avian Hofmann Nuclei
HN neurons are determined to be commissural interneurons before attaining their definitive locations and their longitudinal axons attain mature extent in the ventral funiculus of the contralateral side and begin to sprout collaterals.
On the sinus lumbosacralis, spina bifida occulta, and status dysraphicus in birds
The sinus rhomboidalis sacralis or sinus lumbosacralis as it is named by Ariens Kappers (1920) is an interesting anatomical part of the lumbosacral region of the avian spinal medulla. It is found in
Mechanosensitivity of spinal accessory lobe neurons in the pigeon
A modification of the masson trichrome technique for routine laboratory purposes.
  • J. Goldner
  • Biology
    The American journal of pathology
  • 1938
A striking modification of Mallory's connective tissue stain is devised by replacing fuchsin with a stable and exclusively nudear stain (Kernechtrot) which is a very brilliant carmine.
Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte des Lumbal= markes bei den Vögeln
Über die oberflächlichen Nervenkerne im Marke der Vögel und Reptilien
  • Z wiss Zool
  • 1902
Behavioral evidence of the role of lumbosacral anatomical specializations in pigeons in maintaining balance during terrestrial locomotion
Results support the assumption that the lumbosacral specializations are involved in the control of locomotion on the ground, and the effect of opening the fluid space was studied in pigeons.