The strategic reference gene: an organismal theory of inclusive fitness

  title={The strategic reference gene: an organismal theory of inclusive fitness},
  author={Lutz Fromhage and Michael D. Jennions},
  journal={Proceedings of the Royal Society B},
How to define and use the concept of inclusive fitness is a contentious topic in evolutionary theory. Inclusive fitness can be used to calculate selection on a focal gene, but it is also applied to whole organisms. Individuals are then predicted to appear designed as if to maximize their inclusive fitness, provided that certain conditions are met (formally when interactions between individuals are ‘additive’). Here we argue that applying the concept of inclusive fitness to organisms is… 

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