# The statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics

@article{Ballentine1970TheSI, title={The statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics}, author={Leslie Ballentine}, journal={Reviews of Modern Physics}, year={1970}, volume={42}, pages={358-381} }

The Statistical Interpretation of quantum theory is formulated for the purpose of providing a sound interpretation using a minimum of assumptions. Several arguments are advanced in favor of considering the quantum state description to apply only to an ensemble of similarily prepared systems, rather than supposing, as is often done, that it exhaustively represents an individual physical system. Most of the problems associated with the quantum theory of measurement are artifacts of the attempt to…

## 650 Citations

### T he Statistical In terpretation of Q uan tum

- Physics
- 2018

The Statistical Interpretation of quantum theory is formulated for the purpose of providing a sound interpretation using a minimum of assumptions. Several arguments are advanced in favor of…

### Reinterpretation of Quantum Mechanics Based on the Statistical Interpretation

- Physics
- 1998

I attempt to develop further the statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics proposed by Einstein and developed by Popper, Ballentine, etc. Two ideas are proposed in the present paper. One is to…

### Quantum gravity and the statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics

- Physics
- 1986

Three independent arguments are given for the conclusion that the distinction between quantum fluctuations and real statistical fluctuations in the state of a system will not be maintained in a…

### A Local Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

- Physics
- 2016

A local interpretation of quantum mechanics is presented. Its main ingredients are: first, a label attached to one of the “virtual” paths in the path integral formalism, determining the output for…

### An objective interpretation of Lagrangian quantum mechanics

- PhysicsProceedings of the Royal Society of London. A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
- 1978

Unlike classical mechanics, the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics does not provide an objective space-time picture of the actual history of a physical system. This paper suggests how the…

### The interpretation of quantum mechanics

- Physics
- 1986

It is argued that the reduction of the wavepacket following a measurement is no more than a computational convenience to which no meaning should be attached. In a strict application of quantum…

### Problems and Promises of the Ensemble Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

- Philosophy
- 1993

After a brief outline of the ensemble interpretation, its advantages and promises are described, including both the elimination of the puzzles that beset the Copenhagen interpretation and newer lines…

### On the Interpretation and Philosophical Foundation of Quantum Mechanics

- Physics
- 2008

When investigating various interpretations of quantum mechanics one notices that each interpretation contains an element which escapes a complete and full description. This element is always…

### Interpretation of the hydrodynamical formalism of quantum mechanics

- Physics
- 1991

The hydrodynamical formalism for the quantum theory of a nonrelativistic particle is considered, together with a reformulation of it which makes use of the methods of kinetic theory and is based on…

### 0 Complementarity in Quantum Mechanics and Classical Statistical Mechanics

- Physics
- 2018

Roughly speaking, complementarity can be understood as the coexistence of multiple properties in the behavior of an object that seem to be contradictory. Although it is possible to switch among…

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 55 REFERENCES

### Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics and the Future of Physics

- Physics
- 1967

This paper deals with the problem of the interpretation of quantum mechanics, the nature of physical theory, and the future of physics. First, the question of why there are so many different…

### Survey of the Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics

- Physics
- 1956

A survey is made of the hitherto proposed answers to the following crucial questions arising in the physical interpretation of the mathematical formalism of wave mechanics: (I) What is the meaning of…

### A SUGGESTED INTERPRETATION OF THE QUANTUM THEORY IN TERMS OF "HIDDEN" VARIABLES. II

- Physics
- 1952

In this paper, we shall show how the theory of measurements is to be understood from the point of view of a physical interpretation of the quantum theory in terms of hidden variables developed in a…

### ON A THEORY OF MEASUREMENT OF INCOMPATIBLE OBSERVABLES IN QUANTUM MECHANICS

- Physics
- 1967

The empirical meaning of the simultaneity of measurement of several observables is carefully analyzed. General criteria sufficient to guarantee the internal consistency of a framework including…

### THE STATISTICAL NATURE OF QUANTUM MECHANICS*

- PhysicsThe British Journal for the Philosophy of Science
- 1962

THOUGH it deals ultimately with concrete realities of experience, quantum mechanics performs its calculations in an abstract Hilbert space of operators and vectors. The required connecting link…

### An operational interpretation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics

- Physics
- 1969

WHAT IS QUANTUM MECHANICS? A remarkable feature of the 1968 conference of Nobel prize winners in physics at Lindau is that it was possible for me to ask such a question in the presence of two of the…

### A Proposed Solution of the Measurement Problem in Quantum Mechanics by a Hidden Variable Theory

- Physics
- 1966

The measurement problem in quantum mechanics is re-examined and it is shown that it cannot really be solved in a satisfactory way, within the framework of the usual interpretation of the theory. We…

### Correlation between Measurements in Quantum Theory

- Mathematics
- 1961

Extension of the postulational basis of quantum theory by introducing correlations between the results of measurements, leads to negative joint probabilities for otherwise meaningful sets of measured…

### Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?

- Philosophy
- 1935

Consideration of the problem of making predictions concerning a system on the basis of measurements made on another system that had previously interacted with it leads to the result that one is led to conclude that the description of reality as given by a wave function is not complete.