The spirited, the observant, and the disheartened: social concepts of optimism, realism, and pessimism.


The social concepts of optimism, pessimism, and realism were investigated by assessing the prototypical acts (thoughts, feelings, goals, and actions) that laypersons assign to optimists, pessimists, and realists responding to a controllable and an uncontrollable situation. Optimists and realists, but not pessimists, were seen as adjusting their behavior to… (More)


3 Figures and Tables