The spectrum of MOG autoantibody-associated demyelinating diseases

  title={The spectrum of MOG autoantibody-associated demyelinating diseases},
  author={Markus Reindl and Franziska Di Pauli and Kevin Rost{\'a}sy and Thomas Berger},
  journal={Nature Reviews Neurology},
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) has been identified as a target of demyelinating autoantibodies in animal models of inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the CNS, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Numerous studies have aimed to establish a role for MOG antibodies in patients with MS, although the results have been controversial. Cell-based immunoassays using MOG expressed in mammalian cells have demonstrated the presence of high-titre MOG antibodies in paediatric patients with acute… 

Recent developments in MOG-IgG associated neurological disorders

  • H. HegenM. Reindl
  • Medicine, Biology
    Therapeutic advances in neurological disorders
  • 2020
An overview of current knowledge of MOG-IgG associated disorders is provided, the clinical presentations identified, differences from neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and multiple sclerosis are highlighted, clinical outcome and concepts of immune treatment are summarized, and the underlying mechanisms of antibody pathogenicity are depicted.

MOG antibody-associated diseases

In the past few years several studies have consistently reported the presence of high-titer serum IgG antibodies to conformational epitopes of the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in predominantly pediatric patients with acquired demyelinating diseases, and these antibodies seem to be associated with a better prognosis.

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies: How clinically useful are they?

Serum IgG autoantibodies against the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) are present in atypical demyelinating disorders such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), but are only partly overlapping with NMOSD and multiple sclerosis and with a high risk of a recurrent disease course.

Anti-MOG antibodies in adult patients with demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system

Comment on severe demyelination but no astrocytopathy in clinically definite neuromyelitis optica with anti-myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein was first identified as the antigenic target of demyelinating antibodies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis more than 25 years ago and demonstrated that antibodies against conformational MOG epitopes are more relevant in vivo, thus leading to the development of more sensitive detection assays, particularly cell-based assays.

Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody-Associated Disorders: Toward a New Spectrum of Inflammatory Demyelinating CNS Disorders?

The findings regarding MOG antibodies as potential biological markers in discriminating between these different demyelinating CNS diseases are presented, and recent developments, clinical implementations, and data on immunopathogenesis of MOG antibody-associated disorders are discussed.

Pediatric demyelinating disease and anti‐MOG antibody

  • S. Tenembaum
  • Medicine, Biology
    Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology
  • 2021
Recent findings regarding the spectrum of MOG‐associated disorders in pediatric patients related to diagnosis, clinical presentation, and neuroimaging patterns are summarized, including data on current available and emerging treatment options for children.



Glycoproteins as targets of autoantibodies in CNS inflammation: MOG and more

Key findings from animal models and patient studies are summarized, challenges in detecting anti-MOG antibodies in patients are discussed, and recent approaches to identifying new autoantigens in MS are presented.

Identification of a pathogenic antibody response to native myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in multiple sclerosis

Overall these findings suggest a pathogenic antibody response to native MOG in a subgroup of MS patients, and its implication for demyelination and axonal loss in MS.

Highly reactive anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies differentiate demyelinating diseases from viral encephalitis in children

Low sensitivity anti-MOG antibodies will not serve as disease-specific biomarkers, but could help to support the diagnosis of ADEM in difficult cases, and corroborates recently published results of seroprevalence and specificity of the assay.

Complement activating antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in neuromyelitis optica and related disorders

It is shown for the first time that a subset of AQP4-IgG seronegative patients with NMO and HR-NMO exhibit a MOG-IGG mediated immune response, whereas MOG is not a target antigen in cases with an AQP 4-directed humoral immune response.

Antibodies to native myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein are serologic markers of early inflammation in multiple sclerosis

  • P. LaliveT. Menge C. Genain
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2006
It is concluded that epitopes displayed on native, glycosylated MOG expressed in vivo are early targets for pathogenic Abs, and the cell-based assay provides a practical serologic marker for early detection of CNS autoimmune demyelination including its preclinical stage at least in the primate MS model.

T‐ and B‐cell responses to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis

Current understanding of MOG as a target autoantigen in EAE and MS is provided, and the crucial question as to how immune tolerance to MOG may be maintained in the healthy individual is addressed.

Age-Dependent B Cell Autoimmunity to a Myelin Surface Antigen in Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis1

Autoantibodies to myelin surface Ags in a large cohort of pediatric MS cases were investigated by flow cytometric labeling of transfectants that expressed different myelin proteins to find those most common in patients with a very early onset of MS.

Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein–specific T Cell Receptor Transgenic Mice Develop Spontaneous Autoimmune Optic Neuritis

It is demonstrated that clinical manifestations of CNS autoimmune disease will vary depending on the identity of the target autoantigen and that MOG-specific T cell responses are involved in the genesis of isolated optic neuritis.

Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies in pediatric patients with optic neuritis.

High-titer MOG-IgG antibodies are predominantly detected in pediatric patients with recurrent ON, indicating that anti-MOG-specific antibodies may exert a direct role in the pathogenesis of ON in this subgroup.