The spatial arrangement of cones in the primate fovea

  title={The spatial arrangement of cones in the primate fovea},
  author={John D. Mollon and James K. Bowmaker},
THE retinae of Old World primates contain three classes of light-sensitive cone, which exhibit peak absorption in different spectral regions1–4. But how are the different types of cone arranged in the hexagonal mosaic of the fovea? This question has often been answered with artists' impressions5–7, but never with direct measurements. Staining for antibodies specific to the short-wave photopigment has revealed a sparse, semiregular array of cones8; but nothing is known about the arrangement of… 


The suggestion that the relative number of L cones increases towards the periphery (Hagstrom et al. 1998) implies that the cone-rich rim of the retina at the ora serrata may be dominated by L cones.

Distribution of cone photoreceptors in the mammalian retina

It is suggested that the short‐wave sensitive cone fields in mammals are rudimentary areas conserving an ancestral stage of the photopigment evolution.

The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye

Adaptive optics and retinal densitometry are combined to obtain the first images of the arrangement of S, M and L cones in the living human eye, allowing the sharpest images ever taken of the living retina.

Organization of the Human Trichromatic Cone Mosaic

The results suggest that the assignment of L and M pigment, although highly irregular, is not a completely random process, and in the protan carrier, there was no evidence of clumping, perhaps as a result of cone migration during foveal development.

Cognitive Organization of the Human Trichromatic Cone Mosaic

Using high-resolution adaptive-optics imaging combined with retinal densitometry, we characterized the arrangement of short(S), middle(M), and long(L) wavelength-sensitive cones in eight human foveal

The spatial arrangement of L and M cones in the peripheral human retina

Development of Opsin and Synapses in Monkey Photoreceptors

This work has shown that Macaca retinal topography results in a cone-dominated fovea and a rod-dominated periphery whose developmental patterns can be studied separately.

The photoreceptor mosaic

The organisation of the human photoreceptor mosaic reflects evolutionary strategies for optimising visual information under a wide range of stimulus conditions: the rod population dominates except for the central 2° and along the ora serrata.



Photosensitive and photostable pigments in the retinae of Old World monkeys.

Microspectrophotometric measurements of retinal receptors are reported for eight species of Old World monkey, finding that the trichromacy of frugivorous catarrhine monkeys may have co-evolved with a particular class of coloured fruit.

Spectral sensitivity of cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis.

Psychophysical results on human colour matching were well predicted from the spectral sensitivities of the monkey cones, and the spectra of the red and green cones matched the respective pi 5 and pi 4 mechanisms of Stiles (1953, 1959).

Spatial structure of cone inputs to receptive fields in primate lateral geniculate nucleus

Measurements contradict the mixed-surround hypothesis and imply cone specificity in both centre and surround and the development of new stimuli to measure spatial maps of the linear L-, M- and S-cone inputs to test the hypothesis definitively.

Staining of blue-sensitive cones of the macaque retina by a fluorescent dye.

Intravitreal injection of a fluorescent dye, Procion yellow, results in the complete and systematic staining of a cone population in the monkey retina, and stained cones resemble that reported for blue-sensitive cones of other primates and are found with less incidence in species having lower concentrations of blue cones.

Microspectrophotometric demonstration of four classes of photoreceptor in an old world primate, Macaca fascicularis.

1. Microspectrophotometric measurements reveal four classes of photoreceptor in the retina of the cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis, which is known to possess colour vision similar to that of a

Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti‐blue opsin

Primate cones maximally sensitive to short wavelength light (blue cones) have been previously identified by using indirect methods. We stained 7 wholemounted human retinas obtained from 6 female

The visual perception of fine detail

  • H. Hartridge
  • History
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
  • 1947
All the experiments described in this paper have one object in view, namely, to elucidate some of the mechanisms, both nervous and otherwise, by which the image formed on the retina is clarified and improved before it reaches the higher centres of the brain.

From Pigments to Perception

The visual capacities of monkeys following their selective disruption are examined to propose that the color-opponent channel extends visual capacities in the spatial and wavelength domains whereas the broad-band channel extends them in the temporal domain.