The solar WIND and suprathermal ion composition investigation on the WIND spacecraft

  title={The solar WIND and suprathermal ion composition investigation on the WIND spacecraft},
  author={G. Gloeckler and Hans Balsiger and Alfred B{\"u}rgi and Peter A. Bochsler and L. A. Fisk and Antoinette B. Galvin and Johannes Geiss and Fritz Gliem and Douglas C. Hamilton and Thomas Edward Holzer and Dieter Hovestadt and Fred M. Ipavich and E. Kirsch and R. A. Lundgren and Keith W. Ogilvie and Robert B. Sheldon and Berend Wilken},
  journal={Space Science Reviews},
The Solar Wind and Suprathermal Ion Composition Experiment (SMS) on WIND is designed to determine uniquely the elemental, isotopic, and ionic-charge composition of the solar wind, the temperatures and mean speeds of all major solar-wind ions, from H through Fe, at solar wind speeds ranging from 175 kms−1 (protons) to 1280 kms−1 (Fe+8), and the composition, charge states as well as the 3-dimensional distribution functions of suprathermal ions, including interstellar pick-up He+, of energies up… 
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Plasmas found in space range from the solar wind with a typical temperature of 105–106 K, ∼400 km/s bulk flow speed, and high ionization (charge states) of ions, to the hot, slowly moving plasmas in