The socioecology of fission-fusion sociality in Orangutans

  title={The socioecology of fission-fusion sociality in Orangutans},
  author={Carel P. van Schaik},
Fission-fusion systems can have the group or the individual as their primary unit. In group-based fission-fusion systems, predation risk reduction is the major benefit to grouping, in the individual-based ones the benefits are likely to be primarily social. Orangutans, like chimpanzees, are examples of an individual-based fission-fusion species. The orangutans inhabiting a Sumatran swamp forest (Suaq Balimbing) are more likely than elsewhere to form travel parties. As elsewhere, the main… 

Observations of fission-fusion dynamics in diademed sifakas ( Propithecus diadema ) at Tsinjoarivo , eastern Madagascar

Fission-fusion behaviors in diademed sifaka (Propithecus diadema, Indriidae) at Tsinjoarivo are reported, meaning that the larger social unit breaks into two or more subgroups for hours or days, and those subgroups travel and forage independently forhours or days.

Primate group size and interpreting socioecological models: Do folivores really play by different rules?

Because primates display such remarkable diversity, they are an ideal taxon within which to examine the evolutionary significance of group living and the ecological factors responsible for variation

Fissão-fusão em Cebus nigritus : flexibilidade social como estratégia de ocupação de ambientes limitantes

The capuchin monkey groups of the State Park Carlos Botelho (PECB) can be characterized as a fission-fusion society or subgrouping is a temporary strategy prior to a permanent division of a large group, indicating that the fruit sources at PECB are poor quality resources and do not support all group members.

The ties that bind: genetic relatedness predicts the fission and fusion of social groups in wild African elephants

It is found that genetic relatedness predicted group fission; adult females remained with their first order maternal relatives when core groups fissioned temporarily, and relatedness also predicted temporary fusion between social groups.

Fissioning minimizes ranging costs in spider monkeys: a multiple-level approach

The results indicate that on the whole spider monkeys successfully minimize ranging costs by fission and fusion of subgroups, and at all the other time-scale levels larger subgroups did not experience greater ranging costs than smaller subgroups.

Great Ape Social Systems

For decades, the social systems of the great ape species were described as being fundamentally different, but long-term field studies have questioned this idea. Although orangutans seem to be less

Primates and Cetaceans

This book discusses how ecological conditions affect the abundance and social organization of folivorous monkeys and social conflict management in primates and cetacean societies, and social touch in apes and dolphins.

Herd composition, kinship and fission–fusion social dynamics among wild giraffe

It is suggested that giraffe herds share many characteristics of fission–fusion social systems and propose that sophisticated communication systems are a crucial component regulating subgroup dynamics.



The hidden costs of sociality: intra-group variation in feeding strategies in Sumatran long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

It is concluded that adult females left the main party mainly to escape from feeding competition and attempted to reduce travel time when they had infants so as to minimise the costs of carrying infants.

Association patterns of spider monkeys: the influence of ecology and sex on social organization

  • C. Chapman
  • Biology
    Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
  • 2004
The results suggest that ecological factors set an upper limit to the number of spider monkeys that can associate and still efficiently exploit the available resources.

Ecological constraints on group size in three species of neotropical primates.

  • C. Chapman
  • Biology
    Folia primatologica; international journal of primatology
  • 1990
It was shown that these primates used resources that occurred in patches, depleted the patches through their use, and that membership in large subgroups was associated with increased travel costs and the hypothesis that the size, density and distribution of food resources influence the size of animal groups was tested.

Ecological constraints on group size: an analysis of spider monkey and chimpanzee subgroups

Field studies of spider monkeys and chimpanzees were used to test a model of ecological constraints on animal group size which suggests that group size is a function of travel costs and assess ecological and social factors underlying the social organization of these two species.

Why Are Diurnal Primates Living in Groups

A critical test is proposed of the hypothesis that increasing group size should lead to reduced predation risk by comparing demographic patterns between areas where predators are still present and where they have disappeared and the results provide strong support for the predation-feeding competition theory.

The formation of red colobus–diana monkey associations under predation pressure from chimpanzees

  • Ronald NoëR. Bshary
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1997
Testing the anti–predation hypothesis with observational and experimental data on mixed–species groups of red colobus and diana monkeys in the Taï National Park, Ivory Coast found that association rates peaked during the chimpanzees' hunting season and playbacks of recordings of chimpanzee sounds induced the formation of new associations and extended the duration of existing associations.

Variations in Subsistence Activities of Female and Male Pongids: New Perspectives on the Origins of Hominid Labor Division [and Comments]

It is explored the possibility that incipient forms of labor division had a firm biological/ecological foundation in the nonhuman primates well before a social/cultural overlay developed in the hominid line, to recast labor division as one of the many evolutionary continuities binding humans to other primates.

Scramble and Contest in Feeding Competition Among Female Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca Fascicularis)

It is concluded that both components of feeding competition exist in long-tailed macaques, but that contest for food is often transferred into contest for safety and a framework is proposed to relate interspecific variation in contest effects to food distribution and group cohesion.

Orangutan sociality at Tanjung Puting

  • B. Galdikas
  • Biology, Psychology
    American journal of primatology
  • 1985
Comparisons with results of studies from other areas indicate that, once samples used in each study are made explicit and aggregations owing to chance encounters at major food sources excluded, orangutan sociality seems relatively consistent over the entire range in which the species is found.