The social psychology of stigma.

  title={The social psychology of stigma.},
  author={Brenda Major and Laurie T. O'Brien},
  journal={Annual review of psychology},
This chapter addresses the psychological effects of social stigma. Stigma directly affects the stigmatized via mechanisms of discrimination, expectancy confirmation, and automatic stereotype activation, and indirectly via threats to personal and social identity. We review and organize recent theory and empirical research within an identity threat model of stigma. This model posits that situational cues, collective representations of one's stigma status, and personal beliefs and motives shape… 

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  • E. Pinel
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  • 1999
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