The social contexts of some very low frequency calls of African elephants

@article{Poole2004TheSC,
  title={The social contexts of some very low frequency calls of African elephants},
  author={Joyce Poole and Katy-Louise Payne and William Richard Langbauer and Cynthia J. Moss},
  journal={Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology},
  year={2004},
  volume={22},
  pages={385-392}
}
SummarySeveral types of low frequency calls made by African elephants, Loxodonta africana, and the contexts in which they occurred are described. These calls had fundamental frequencies ranging from 14–35 Hz and sound pressure levels as high as 103±3dB (re 20 μPa) at 5 m from the source. Very low frequency sounds are subject to very little environmental attenuation, suggesting that sounds at the frequencies and sound pressure levels measured from elephants may be audible to conspecifics several… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

Vocal communication in African elephants (Loxodonta africana).
TLDR
Growth in knowledge about the communication system of the African elephant has occurred from a rich combination of research on wild elephants in national parks and captive elephants in zoological parks. Expand
Acoustic communication in the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus maximus
TLDR
A quantitative description of vocal communication in wild Asian elephants is presented, which categorizes calls by acoustic features into 8 ‘single’ calls, 5 ‘combination” calls and one possibly unique male call for a total of at least 14 distinct call types. Expand
African Elephants Respond to Distant Playbacks of Low-Frequency Conspecific Calls
TLDR
The hypothesis that the very low-frequency calls of elephants function in communication between individuals and groups of elephants separated by distances of several kilometers is consistent with the hypothesis that these calls are audible to elephants. Expand
Vocalizations of wild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): structural classification and social context.
TLDR
The vocal repertoire of wild Asian elephants in southern India was examined and four call types, namely, trumpets, chirps, roars, and rumbles, were classified into four mutually exclusive categories, based on quantitative analyses of their spectral and temporal features. Expand
Asian elephants modulate their vocalizations when disturbed
TLDR
Under disturbed conditions, Asian elephants can modify vocal signals whose likely function could be to alert conspecifics about potential threats. Expand
African elephant vocal communication I: antiphonal calling behaviour among affiliated females
African elephants, Loxodonta africana, are well known for their use of a low-frequency ‘rumble’ vocalization, which is thought to function in long-distance communication. Less work, however, has beenExpand
The use of low-frequency vocalizations in African elephant(Loxodonta africana) reproductive strategies
TLDR
Elevated rates of vocalization thus were not restricted to behavioral estrus and occurred much earlier in the estrous cycle than in most species that produce fertility-advertisement calls, and may not be reliable signals of actual fertility. Expand
Long-distance communication of acoustic cues to social identity in African elephants
Abstract Research on long-distance vocal communication in mammals has tended to focus on the maximum distances over which a vocal signal might be physically detectable. For example, because elephantsExpand
QUANTIFYING ACOUSTIC AND TEMPORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VOCALIZATIONS FOR A GROUP OF CAPTIVE AFRICAN ELEPHANTS LOXODONTA AFRICANA
TLDR
Low-frequency vocalisations containing infrasonic components were predominant in this localised communication context and showed a gradation of variation in acoustic structure and duration, suggesting that the African elephant vocal repertoire may be more complex than previously reported. Expand
Call repertoire of infant African elephants: first insights into the early vocal ontogeny.
TLDR
In contrast to adult elephants, the infants showed no gender-dependent variation in the structure or in the number of call types produced, and male infants were more vocally adamant in their suckle behavior than females. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 22 REFERENCES
Infrasonic calls of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)
TLDR
Elephants are the first terrestrial mammals reported to produce infrasound, and these calls may be important in the coordination of behavior in thick vegetation or among separated groups of elephants. Expand
Allomothering among African elephants
TLDR
In a population of elephants with known lineages and calf ages, interactions between calves and other elephants were found to be frequent and consisted of either relaxed, friendly greetings and investigations of others or assistance when calves were threatened or distressed. Expand
Oestrous Behaviour and Female Choice in the African Elephant
TLDR
Observation of female behaviour during oestrus suggested that some females preferred to mate with males in the largest size class, particularly those in musth, and two possible short-term advantages to females exercising choice in mating partners are suggested. Expand
Rutting Behavior in African Elephants: the Phenomenon of Musth
TLDR
Although the musth periods of male elephants are asynchronous the phenomenon can functionally be considered a rutting period, and the physical and behavioral manifestations of musth in elephants are similar to those described for other male mammals during rut. Expand
Announcing intent: the aggressive state of musth in African elephants
Predictions derived from game theory suggest that animals should not signal their intentions during conflict situations. However, during the period of musth, male elephants,Loxodonta africana,Expand
Early maternal investment in male and female African elephant calves
TLDR
It is suggested that greater early maternal investment in male calves occurs because, in the highly-competitive polygynous mating system of elephants, size in adult male elephants is an important factor in mating success. Expand
Physical constraints on acoustic communication in the atmosphere: Implications for the evolution of animal vocalizations
TLDR
In addition to frequency-dependent attenuation, two kinds of degradation during atmospheric transmission will limit a receiver's ability to resolve differences among acoustic signals: the accumulation of irregular amplitude fluctuations from nonstationary heterogeneities, often atmospheric turbulence, and reverberation. Expand
Musth and urinary testosterone concentrations in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).
TLDR
A correlation between the observed behavioural characteristics of musth and urinary testosterone levels is supported and male testosterone concentrations were significantly greater in males that were in or around the time of behavioural musth. Expand
A Review of the Influence of Meteorological Conditions on Sound Propagation
The study of the different atmospheric effects indicates that in short‐range sound propagation the attenuation by irregularities in the wind structure (gustiness) often is of major importance inExpand
Relationships and social structure in African elephants
  • Primate social relationships : an integrated approach
  • 1983
...
1
2
3
...