The sleep–wake cycle and sleeping pills

  title={The sleep–wake cycle and sleeping pills},
  author={Björn Lemmer},
  journal={Physiology \& Behavior},
  • B. Lemmer
  • Published 28 February 2007
  • Psychology
  • Physiology & Behavior

Some implications of melatonin use in chronopharmacology of insomnia.

Sleep driving: sleepwalking variant or misuse of z-drugs?

Sleep – A Rare Gift: A Detail Review Study on Insomnia

Insomnia disorder is a long-term sickness in which a person has trouble sleeping. Every person has trouble sleeping every once in a while. But for people with insomnia disorder, sleep problems happen

Sleep, circadian rhythms and health

This paper considers the mechanisms that generate and regulate circadian and sleep systems; what happens mechanistically when these systems collapse as a result of societal pressures and disease; how sleep disruption and stress are linked; and how individuals and employers can attempt to mitigate some of the problems associated with working against the authors' internal temporal biology.

Circadian phase-shifting effects of repeated ramelteon administration in healthy adults.

Ramelteon (1, 2, or 4 mg per day) administered before bedtime significantly advanced the phase of the circadian rhythm after a 5-h phase advance in the sleep-wake cycle, suggesting that ramelteon has potential as a specific therapy for circadian rhythm sleep disorders.

Diagnosis and treatment of chronic insomnia

  • S. Saddichha
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
  • 2010
Non-pharmacologic strategies such as stimulus control therapy and relaxation and cognitive therapies have the best effect sizes followed by sleep restriction, paradoxical intention and sleep hygiene education which have modest to less than modest effect sizes.

Role of GABAA receptors in the physiology and pharmacology of sleep

The mechanism of action of sedative‐hypnotic drugs and their effects on sleep and the electroencephalogram will be reported, and the potential of GABAA receptor pharmacology for the treatment of insomnia is addressed.

Pharmacological Targeting the REV-ERBs in Sleep/Wake Regulation

The studies indicate that the REV-ERBs are potential therapeutic targets for treating sleep problems as those encountered as a consequence of shift work or jet lag.



A benzodiazepine used in the treatment of insomnia phase-shifts the mammalian circadian clock

It is reported that the acute administration of triazolam, a short-acting benzodiazepine commonly prescribed for the treatment of insomnia, induces a phase-shift in the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity in golden hamsters, which suggests a role for GABA-containing neurones in the mammalian circadian system.

Treatment of a 12-hour shift of sleep schedule with benzodiazepines.

Despite good sleep, flurazepam subjects appeared most impaired of the three groups on objective assessments of waking function; triazolam subjects were least impaired.

Effects of the short-acting benzodiazepine triazolam, taken at bedtime, on circadian and sleep-related hormonal profiles in normal men.

Administration of 0.5 mg triazolam at normal bedtime for three consecutive days may induce a transient hyperprolactinemia, but does not abolish sleep-related hormone secretion and does not affect the timing of endocrine events controlled by the circadian clock.

Hormonal responses to exercise after partial sleep deprivation and after a hypnotic drug-induced sleep

Only minor alterations in the hormonal responses to exercise after partial sleep deprivation are demonstrated, which are dependent on the sleep-wake cycle, to strenuous physical exercise.

Adaptation of Human Sleep‐Wake and Body Temperature Cycles to a New Sleep‐Wake Schedule: A Study with a Short‐Acting Benzodiazepine

Abstract: Twelve healthy male subjects were divided into 2 groups–the triazolam and placebo groups. The first three days were designated the baseline days. On the last three days, the bedtime and

Manipulation of the circadian clock with benzodiazepines: implications for altering the sleep-wake cycle.

Findings indicate that treatment with a short-acting benzodiazepine, triazolam, can induce major shifts in the circadian clock of golden hamsters and might be useful in the treatment of various sleep and mental disorders that have been associated with a disorder in circadian time-keeping in humans.

Effects of bedtime administration of zolpidem on circadian and sleep-related hormonal profiles in normal women.

Bedtime administration of 10 mg zolpidem, a standard clinical dosage, systematically induces a transient moderate hyperprolactinemia, but does not alter other sleep-related hormonal secretions or endocrine markers of circadian rhythmicity.

Ultradian dynamics of sleep after a single dose of benzodiazepine hypnotics.

Dose‐related effects of triazolam and flurazepam on a circadian rhythm insomnia

In a dose‐related manner, flurazepam mitigated the insomnia, but carryover effects left both dose groups more sleepy than were the placebo control subjects.