The sleep–wake cycle and sleeping pills

  title={The sleep–wake cycle and sleeping pills},
  author={Björn Lemmer},
  journal={Physiology \& Behavior},
  • B. Lemmer
  • Published 28 February 2007
  • Psychology
  • Physiology & Behavior
Some implications of melatonin use in chronopharmacology of insomnia.
Sleep – A Rare Gift: A Detail Review Study on Insomnia
Insomnia disorder is a long-term sickness in which a person has trouble sleeping. Every person has trouble sleeping every once in a while. But for people with insomnia disorder, sleep problems happen
Sleep, circadian rhythms and health
This paper considers the mechanisms that generate and regulate circadian and sleep systems; what happens mechanistically when these systems collapse as a result of societal pressures and disease; how sleep disruption and stress are linked; and how individuals and employers can attempt to mitigate some of the problems associated with working against the authors' internal temporal biology.
Circadian phase-shifting effects of repeated ramelteon administration in healthy adults.
Ramelteon (1, 2, or 4 mg per day) administered before bedtime significantly advanced the phase of the circadian rhythm after a 5-h phase advance in the sleep-wake cycle, suggesting that ramelteon has potential as a specific therapy for circadian rhythm sleep disorders.
Role of GABAA receptors in the physiology and pharmacology of sleep
The mechanism of action of sedative‐hypnotic drugs and their effects on sleep and the electroencephalogram will be reported, and the potential of GABAA receptor pharmacology for the treatment of insomnia is addressed.
Tea combats circadian rhythm disorder syndrome via the gut-liver-brain axis: potential mechanisms speculated.
The threat of CRD to hosts and their offspring' health from the perspective of the "gut-liver-brain" axis is analyzed and the potential mechanisms of tea in alleviating CRD were further explored.
The effect of zolpidem on targeted memory reactivation during sleep.
Findings provide tentative first evidence that GABAergic activity may be functionally implicated in memory reactivation processes during sleep, possibly via its effects on slow oscillations, spindles and theta as well as their interplay.
Sleep disorders: impact on daytime functioning and quality of life
An overview of the daytime symptoms associated with the most common sleep disorders, namely insomnia, restless legs syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and shift wake–sleep disorder are provided.


A benzodiazepine used in the treatment of insomnia phase-shifts the mammalian circadian clock
It is reported that the acute administration of triazolam, a short-acting benzodiazepine commonly prescribed for the treatment of insomnia, induces a phase-shift in the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity in golden hamsters, which suggests a role for GABA-containing neurones in the mammalian circadian system.
Treatment of a 12-hour shift of sleep schedule with benzodiazepines.
Despite good sleep, flurazepam subjects appeared most impaired of the three groups on objective assessments of waking function; triazolam subjects were least impaired.
Effects of the short-acting benzodiazepine triazolam, taken at bedtime, on circadian and sleep-related hormonal profiles in normal men.
Administration of 0.5 mg triazolam at normal bedtime for three consecutive days may induce a transient hyperprolactinemia, but does not abolish sleep-related hormone secretion and does not affect the timing of endocrine events controlled by the circadian clock.
Hormonal responses to exercise after partial sleep deprivation and after a hypnotic drug-induced sleep
Only minor alterations in the hormonal responses to exercise after partial sleep deprivation are demonstrated, which are dependent on the sleep-wake cycle, to strenuous physical exercise.
Adaptation of Human Sleep‐Wake and Body Temperature Cycles to a New Sleep‐Wake Schedule: A Study with a Short‐Acting Benzodiazepine
Abstract: Twelve healthy male subjects were divided into 2 groups–the triazolam and placebo groups. The first three days were designated the baseline days. On the last three days, the bedtime and
Manipulation of the circadian clock with benzodiazepines: implications for altering the sleep-wake cycle.
Findings indicate that treatment with a short-acting benzodiazepine, triazolam, can induce major shifts in the circadian clock of golden hamsters and might be useful in the treatment of various sleep and mental disorders that have been associated with a disorder in circadian time-keeping in humans.
Effects of bedtime administration of zolpidem on circadian and sleep-related hormonal profiles in normal women.
Bedtime administration of 10 mg zolpidem, a standard clinical dosage, systematically induces a transient moderate hyperprolactinemia, but does not alter other sleep-related hormonal secretions or endocrine markers of circadian rhythmicity.
Ultradian dynamics of sleep after a single dose of benzodiazepine hypnotics.
A benzodiazepine hypnotic facilitates adaptation of circadian rhythms and sleep-wake homeostasis to an eight hour delay shift simulating westward jet lag.
Oral Triazolam significantly facilitated adaptation by accelerating re-entrainment of circadian rhythms (chronobiotic effect) and normalizing markers of sleep/wake homeostasis (hypnotic effect).