The sixth and seventh cholera pandemics are due to independent clones separately derived from environmental, nontoxigenic, non-O1 Vibrio cholerae.

@article{Karaolis1995TheSA,
  title={The sixth and seventh cholera pandemics are due to independent clones separately derived from environmental, nontoxigenic, non-O1 Vibrio cholerae.},
  author={David K. R. Karaolis and Ruiting Lan and P. R. Reeves},
  journal={Journal of bacteriology},
  year={1995},
  volume={177 11},
  pages={3191-8}
}
The DNA sequences of the asd genes from 45 isolates of Vibrio cholerae (19 clinical O1 isolates, 2 environmental nontoxigenic O1 isolates, and 24 isolates with different non-O1 antigens) were determined. No differences were found within either sixth- or seventh-pandemic isolates; however, variation was found between the two forms and among the non-O1 isolates. O139 isolates had sequences identical to those of seventh-pandemic isolates. Phylogenetic trees with Vibrio mimicus as the outgroup… CONTINUE READING

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