The silicon p-n-p-n switch and controlled rectifier (thyristor)

  title={The silicon p-n-p-n switch and controlled rectifier (thyristor)},
  author={Jr. Nick Holonyak},
  journal={IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics},
  • J. Holonyak
  • Published 2001
  • Engineering
  • IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Based on the two-transistor model of Jim Ebers (a p-n-p transistor driving an n-p-n, and the n-p-n driving the p-n-p), the two-terminal and three-terminal Si p-n-p-n switch (low power) originated at Bell Telephone Laboratories (BTL) in 1954-1955. The two-terminal version, with its various limitations (along with tile Si technology supplied by BTL, Moll's group), went with Shockley to the West Coast. The two-terminal device and the Shockley enterprise failed, except as an unplanned, unpredicted… 
Integrate-and-Fire Neuron Circuit Without External Bias Voltages
The presented neuron circuit is superior in terms of structural simplicity, number of external bias lines, and energy efficiency in comparison with that constructed with only MOSFETs.
Trends in the design and technology of power semiconductor devices are discussed on the threshold of the year 2015. Well established silicon technologies continue to occupy the most of applications
IEEE Declares General Electric's Silicon-Controlled Rectifier/Thyristor Invention a Milestone [Flyback]
  • A. Bindra
  • Engineering
    IEEE Power Electronics Magazine
  • 2019
During a special Milestone dedication ceremony at Advanced Atomization Technologies (AA TECH), Clyde, New York, on Friday, 14 June 2019, General Electric’s (GE) silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR),
The Sixth Decade of the Thyristor
—The invention of the Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) in the late 1950s, today known as thyristor has led to the revolution in the control of electric power, i.e. in the field of power
Trends in the design and technology of power semiconductor devices are discussed on the threshold of the year 2015. Well established silicon technologies continue to occupy most of applications
Overview of Power Electronic Switches: A Summary of the Past, State-of-the-Art and Illumination of the Future
A more or less ‘forgotten’ power electronic switch, the four-quadrant switch, is highlighted as an opportunity waiting to be exploited as this switch presents a potential for achieving an ideal switch.
An Electronics Division Retrospective (1952-2002) and Future Opportunities in the Twenty-First Century
The emergence of crystalline silicon and silicon-based materials such as silicon-germanium as the premier materials and the personnel driving the integrated circuit (IC) microelectronics revolution
Switching alternating current (AC) using a fully screen-printed current-driven transistor
The authors report on a large area, fully screen-printed transistors, using nanostructured silicon as the active material. The transistors are produced by simple screen printing processes under
Quo vadis, thyristor?
  • G. Arsov, S. Mircevski
  • Engineering
    Proceedings of 14th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference EPE-PEMC 2010
  • 2010
The beginning of modern semiconductor power electronics is connected with invention of Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) in the 1957, wide known as thyristor. It was the base component for power
Silicon Thyristors for Ultrahigh Power (GW) Applications
Evolution of thyristor technology and the design concepts, which brought and maintain the phase control thyristor (PCT) at the top of a power pyramid, are discussed. The state-of-the-art device


P-N-P-N Transistor Switches
The design, fabrication, and electrical characteristics of silicon p-n-p-n transistors with α>1 for use as switches is discussed. The increase of alpha with injection level can be used to construct
Four-Terminal P-N-P-N Transistors
  • J. Ebers
  • Engineering
    Proceedings of the IRE
  • 1952
The equivalent circuit of a p-n-p-n transistor is obtained. It is demonstrated that a p-n-p transistor and an n-p-n transistor can be connected so that the combination has the same equivalent circuit
Semiconductor Controlled Rectifiers
Semiconductor Controlled RectifiersPrinciples and Applications of p-n-p-n Devices. By F. E. Gentry, F. W. Gutzwiller, N. Holonyak jun., and E. E. Von Zastrow. (Series in Solid State Physical
Diffused p-n junction silicon rectifiers
Diffused p-n junction silicon rectifiers incorporating the feature of conductivity modulation are being developed. These rectifiers are made by the diffusion of impurities into thin wafers of
John Bardeen and the Point‐Contact Transistor
To this day it is not well understood that the bipolar transistor began with John Bardeen and Walter H. Brattain's point‐contact transistor. The invention of the point‐contact transistor was a
Fifty Years Of The Transistor : The Beginning Of Silicon Technology
  • Moll
  • History
    Symposium 1997 on VLSI Circuits
  • 1997
The first years have been somewhat controversial as to who invented the transistor. There seems to be no convergence in the disagreement as to whether Shockley or Bardeen was most responsible for the
Two‐Terminal Asymmetrical and Symmetrical Silicon Negative Resistance Switches
By making use of an emitter region shorted by a metallic contact to an adjacent base region, a new form of p‐n‐p‐n switch is obtained. Several new structures are described, including a symmetrical
Power Rectifiers and Transistors
  • R. Hall
  • Engineering
    Proceedings of the IRE
  • 1952
The behavior of donor, acceptor, and ohmic contacts prepared by fusing impurity metals to germanium is discussed. Power rectifiers having rectification ratios as high as 107 can be made by fusing
Surface Protection and Selective Masking during Diffusion in Silicon
An apparatus is described for the vapor‐solid diffusion of donors and acceptors into silicon at atmospheric pressure. It consists essentially of a fused silica tube extending through one or more
The transistor, a semi-conductor triode