The significance of volcanic eruption strength and frequency for climate

  title={The significance of volcanic eruption strength and frequency for climate},
  author={Georgina Miles and Roy G. Grainger and E. J. Highwood},
  journal={Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society},
A simple physical model of the atmospheric effects of large explosive volcanic eruptions is developed. Using only one input parameter—the initial amount of sulphur dioxide injected into the stratosphere—the global‐average stratospheric optical‐depth perturbation and surface temperature response are modelled. The simplicity of this model avoids issues of incomplete data (applicable to more comprehensive models), making it a powerful and useful tool for atmospheric diagnostics of this climate… 
The climatic effects of the direct injection of water vapour into the stratosphere by large volcanic eruptions
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Understanding of volcanic activity and its impacts on the atmosphere has evolved in discrete steps, associated with defining eruptions. The eruption of Krakatau, Indonesia, in August 1883 was the
The climatic effects of large volcanic eruptions
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Potential impacts of major nineteenth century volcanic eruptions on temperature over Cape Town, South Africa: 1834–1899
Improving scientific knowledge of volcanic eruptions and their impact on climate is important for testing and improving climate projection models. Despite substantive work on the impacts of major
Assessment of the Combined Sensitivity of Nadir TIR Satellite Observations to Volcanic SO2 and Sulphate Aerosols after a Moderate Stratospheric Eruption
Monitoring gaseous and particulate volcanic emissions with remote observations is of particular importance for climate studies, air quality and natural risk assessment. The concurrent impact of the
Extending the long‐term record of volcanic SO2 emissions with the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite nadir mapper
Uninterrupted, global space‐based monitoring of volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions is critical for climate modeling and aviation hazard mitigation. We report the first volcanic SO2 measurements
A chemistry-transport model simulation of the stratospheric ozone for 1980 to 2019
In this study the results from a global 40-year middle atmospheric simulation are shown and discussed. The simulation has been done using an off-line FinROSE-chemistry-transport model (FinROSE)
Energy and Magnitude: A Historical Perspective
  • E. Okal
  • Geology
    Pure and Applied Geophysics
  • 2018
We present a detailed historical review of early attempts to quantify seismic sources through a measure of the energy radiated into seismic waves, in connection with the parallel development of the
Volcanic SO2 Conversion to Sulfate Aerosols: Impact on Nadir TIR Satellite Observations
Volcanic eruptions are a major natural source of gases and aerosols, which perturbs the atmospheric chemistry (Graf et al. in Chem Geol 147:131–45, 1998) and the Earth’s radiative transfer (Robock


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Volcanic eruptions are an important natural cause of climate change on many timescales. A new capability to predict the climatic response to a large tropical eruption for the succeeding 2 years will
On numerical simulation of the global distribution of sulfate aerosol produced by a large volcanic eruption
Abstract Volcanic eruptions play an important role in the global sulfur cycle of the earth's atmosphere and have a relatively big influence on potential fluctuations of the atmospheric variables on
Stratospheric Loading of Sulfur From Explosive Volcanic Eruptions
This paper is an attempt to measure our understanding of volcano/atmosphere interactions by comparing a box model of potential volcanogenic aerosol production and removal in the stratosphere with the
Sulphur emissions to the stratosphere from explosive volcanic eruptions
Abstract Two methods were used to quantify the flux of volcanic sulphur (as the equivalent mass of SO2) to the stratosphere over different timescales during the Holocene. A combination of
Volcanic dust in the atmosphere; with a chronology and assessment of its meteorological significance
  • H. Lamb
  • Environmental Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • 1970
After defining the terms commonly used in reporting volcanic eruptions and noting previous approaches to assessment of their magnitudes, this study proceeds to examine aspects of importance, or
Radiative forcing from the 1991 Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption
Volcanic sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere produce significant long-term solar and infrared radiative perturbations in the Earth's atmosphere and at the surface, which cause a response of the
Self-limiting physical and chemical effects in volcanic eruption clouds
We have constructed one-dimensional aerosol microphysical and photochemical models to examine the chemistry of stratospheric volcanic clouds. Estimates of the stratospheric inputs of several key
Integrating retrievals of volcanic cloud characteristics from satellite remote sensors: a summary
  • W. Rose, G. Bluth, G. Ernst
  • Environmental Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2000
Evidence for a strong role of ice in the fallout and aggregation of volcanic cloud ash is considerable and the amounts of fine ash decrease faster in volcanic clouds of larger eruptions, supporting the self–removal processes suggested by Pinto et al. in 1989.
Stratospheric loading and optical depth estimates of explosive volcanism over the last 2100 years derived from the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice core
The high-resolution and lengthy records of volcanic aerosol deposition in ice cores allow assessment of the atmospheric impact of different styles and magnitudes of past eruptions and the impact of
The Volcanic Signal in Surface Temperature Observations.
Abstract Climate records of the past 140 years are examined for the impact of major volcanic eruptions on surface temperature. After the low-frequency variations and El Nino/Southern Oscillation