Arthroscopy has had a great impact on shoulder surgery by adding another dimension to the surgical anatomy. The present benefits of arthroscopy of the shoulder include the establishment of an accurate diagnosis in the glenohumeral joint, subacromial space, and acromioclavicular joint. Various pathologic entities can be visualized. The efficacy and end results of several arthroscopic surgical procedures are under investigation. Patient selection, the pathologic diagnosis, and end results are important considerations in evaluating newly devised arthroscopic methods of treatment of shoulder syndromes.