The sexual differentiation of Cannabis sativa L.: A morphological and molecular study

  title={The sexual differentiation of Cannabis sativa L.: A morphological and molecular study},
  author={V. M. Cristiana Moliterni and Luigi Cattivelli and Paolo Ranalli and Giuseppe Mandolino},
SummaryCannabis sativa L. is a dioecious species with sexual dimorphism occurring in a late stage of plant development. Sex is determined by heteromorphic chromosomes (X and Y): male is the heterogametic sex (XY) and female is the homogametic one (XX). The sexual phenotype of Cannabis often shows some flexibility leading to the differentiation of hermaphrodite flowers or bisexual inflorescences (monoecious phenotype). Sex is considered an important trait for hemp genetic improvement; therefore… 

Sex chromosomes and quantitative sex expression in monoecious hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

Assessing the genotypic variability of its sex expression and establishing its sex chromosomes strongly support that cultivars of monoecious hemp have the XX constitution and that their sex expression has a genetic basis.

Morphological and molecular study of sex determination in Cannabis sativa L.

The results showed significant differences among the accessions within female and male plants for plant height, number of days to flowering, days after full bloom and height of the first flowering node.

Identification of QTLs for sex expression in dioecious and monoecious hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

The role of sex chromosomes in the genetic determinism of sex expression in dioecious and monoecious hemp is investigated and five sex-linked markers were detected in UF, revealing homologies between the X chromosomes of monoeciously hemp and the X and Y chromosomes of dioemious hemp.

Molecular cytogenetic analysis of monoecious hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars reveals its karyotype variations and sex chromosomes constitution

The sex chromosome makeup in monoecious hemp is examined using a cytogenetic approach and there was a high level of intra- and intercultivar karyotype variation detected.

The genomics of plant sex chromosomes.

  • B. VyskotR. Hobza
  • Biology
    Plant science : an international journal of experimental plant biology
  • 2015

Sex expression and the selection and évolution of combined sexes in the dioecious annual herb Mercurialis annua

Investigation of factors that may lead dioecious species towards a state of combined sexes, either hermaphroditism or monoecy, and results show that inconstancy is a trait underlined by genetic variation on which selection may act during episodes of isolation, and can indeed provide a starting point for transitions away from dIOecy.

Hermaphroditism in Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) Inflorescences – Impact on Floral Morphology, Seed Formation, Progeny Sex Ratios, and Genetic Variation

The morphological features of anthers, pollen production and germination in hermaphroditic flowers and in staminate inflorescences on male plants were compared and Copia-like retrotransposons within the C. sativa genome which may be associated with the expression of male or female phenotype were revealed.

Review on different mechanisms of sex determination and sex-linked molecular markers in dioecious crops: a current update

The present review emphasizes the mode of sex determination among dioecious plants vis-a-vis summarizes the works related to gender specific markers generated using male and female plants from agriculturally important dioemious crops.

Development and application of a SRAP marker for the identification of sex in Buchloe dactyloides

Using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and integrated bulked segregant analysis (BSA) technology to find sex linked markers in B. dactyloides provided a simple and reproducible means of early sex identification in the species.

Expansion of female sex organs in response to prolonged virginity in Cannabis sativa (marijuana)

Female flowers of Cannabis sativa in wild-growing populations and in hemp plantations are almost always well supplied with pollen, and the style-stigma parts of virgin pistils expand notably, average over 8 mm in length, and tend to develop more than two branches and to increase in girth.



Identification of DNA markers linked to the male sex in dioecious hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

A 400-bp RAPD marker generated by a primer of random decamer sequence has been found associated with the male sex phenotype in 14 dioecious cultivars and accessions of hemp and is suitable for a precise, early and rapid identification of male plants during breeding programs of dIOecious and monoecious hemp.

Sex-linked AFLP markers indicate a pseudoautosomal region in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

The recombination analysis led to the conclusion that there is a pseudoautosomal region (PAR) on the sex chromosomes, allowing recombination between the X and the Y chromosome.

Characterization; Genome Sizes and Morphology of Sex Chromosomes in Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

Results indicate that the Y chromosome, especially in its long arm, specifically differentiates in Cannabis sativa and might contribute to the sex determination.

Occurrence and frequency of putatively Y chromosome linked DNA markers in Cannabis sativa L.

The fact that the association between these markers and the staminate phenotype is found when examining male plants of distantly related varieties, and that such linkage is never broken when different progenies are examined, strongly supports the hypothesis that the markers found are physically located on the Y chromosome, in a region excluded from recombination during meiosis.

Comparison of Hemp Varieties Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers

The correlations among the molecular data and the genetic structure of the different cultivars and the consequences in relation to variety discrimination in hemp are discussed.

Site-specific accumulation of a LINE-like retrotransposon in a sex chromosome of the dioecious plant Cannabis sativa

The hypothesis that accumulation of a specific LINE-like retrotransposon at the terminal region of the long arm of the Y chromosome might be one cause of heteromorphism of sex chromosomes is supported.

Genetic diversity of Cannabis sativa germplasm based on RAPD markers

RAPD markers provide a powerful tool for the investigation of genetic variation in cultivars/accessions of hemp and Variability within the two cultivars ‘Carmagnola’ and ‘Fibranova1’ was shown, suggesting good possibilities for long–term selection work.