The serotonin system and spiritual experiences.

@article{Borg2003TheSS,
  title={The serotonin system and spiritual experiences.},
  author={Jacqueline Borg and Bengt Andr{\'e}e and Henrik Soderstrom and Lars Farde},
  journal={The American journal of psychiatry},
  year={2003},
  volume={160 11},
  pages={
          1965-9
        }
}
OBJECTIVE The serotonin system has long been of interest in biological models of human personality. The purpose of this positron emission tomography (PET) study was to search for relationships between serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor density and personality traits. METHOD Fifteen normal male subjects, ages 20-45 years, were examined with PET and the radioligand [(11)C]WAY100635. Personality traits were assessed with the Swedish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory self-report… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

No association between serotonin 5-HT1A receptors and spirituality among patients with major depressive disorders or healthy volunteers
TLDR
The results do not support the idea that the serotonin system forms the biological basis of spiritual experiences among patients suffering from major depressive disorder or among healthy volunteers.
No evidence for a role of the serotonin 4 receptor in five-factor personality traits: A positron emission tomography brain study
TLDR
The findings indicate that NEO personality traits and 5-HT4R are not related in healthy participants and suggest that5-HT tone per se is not directly implicated in normal personality traits.
Serotonin 5-HT1A receptor binding and self-transcendence in healthy control subjects—a replication study using Bayesian hypothesis testing
TLDR
A replication of the original study in a larger sample using Bayesian hypothesis testing could not replicate the previous findings of an association between 5-HT1A availability and the personality trait ST/SA, and the Bayesian analysis provided evidence for a lack of correlation.
Serotonin 5-HT1A receptor binding and self-transcendence in healthy control subjects - a replication study using Bayesian hypothesis testing
TLDR
A replication of the original study in a larger sample using Bayesian hypothesis testing could not replicate the previous findings of an association between 5-HT1A availability and the personality trait ST/SA, and the Bayesian analysis provided evidence for a lack of correlation.
Temperament, character and serotonin activity in the human brain: a positron emission tomography study based on a general population cohort
TLDR
A link between high serotonin transporter density and high ‘self-directedness’ (ability to adapt and control one's behaviour to fit situations in accord with chosen goals and values) is found.
The personality trait openness is related to cerebral 5-HTT levels
Search for correlations between serotonin 5-HT1A receptor expression and cognitive functions—a strategy in translational psychopharmacology
TLDR
The results do not provide support for involvement of the 5-HT1A receptor in cognitive functioning in man and question the predictive validity of some currently used animal models in translational neuroscience.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 38 REFERENCES
Dopamine Transporter Density and Novelty Seeking Among Alcoholics
TLDR
Among alcoholics, NS correlated positively with DAT density, which is in line with Cloninger's theory concerning personality and character.
Gender-specific aging effects on the serotonin 1A receptor
Serotonin 5-HT1A Receptor Binding Potential Declines with Age as Measured by [11C]WAY-100635 and PET
Pharmacogenetics and the serotonin system: initial studies and future directions.
Serotonin and Hallucinogens
Pindolol binding to 5-HT1A receptors in the human brain confirmed with positron emission tomography
TLDR
The study confirms that the 5-HT1A-receptor may be a clinically significant target for pindolol and uses a ratio analysis with the cerebellar cortex as the reference region.
A psychobiological model of temperament and character.
TLDR
A psychobiological model of the structure and development of personality that accounts for dimensions of both temperament and character is described, for the first time, for three dimensions of character that mature in adulthood and influence personal and social effectiveness by insight learning about self-concepts.
Differential diagnosis of personality disorders by the seven-factor model of temperament and character.
TLDR
It is concluded that low self-directedness and cooperativeness are core features of all personality disorders and are validly measured by the seven-factor Temperament and Character Inventory, but not the five-factor Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness inventory.
Variability in D2‐dopamine receptor density and affinity: A PET study with [11C]raclopride in man
TLDR
It is indicated that receptor density varies considerably in a group of healthy subjects, and upregulation of the receptor density (Bmax) has been widely discussed as a mechanism for increased dopaminergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia.
Temperament and Character in Adults with Asperger Syndrome
TLDR
The self-ratings of persons with Asperger syndrome indicated anxious personalities with coping difficulties in the areas of social interaction and self-directedness, a picture corresponding to the clinical descriptions of Aspergers syndrome.
...
...