The serotonin syndrome.

@article{Boyer2005TheSS,
  title={The serotonin syndrome.},
  author={Edward W. Boyer and Michael Wayne Shannon},
  journal={The New England journal of medicine},
  year={2005},
  volume={352 11},
  pages={
          1112-20
        }
}
The serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening drug reaction that may result from therapeutic medication use, self-poisoning, or interactions between drugs. 
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The authors put serotonin syndrome into historical context, discuss its pathophysiology, review in detail its clinical presentations, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis and treatment, and focus on drugs that most often cause serotonin syndrome and the gene polymorphisms involved in the metabolism of these drugs.
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This case discusses a pharmacodynamic interaction between phenelzine and meperidine resulting in serotonin syndrome and its implications for treatment of major depressive disorders.
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The serotonin syndrome is the clinical manifestation of serotonin toxicity in patients taking one or more serotonergic agents. It is characterized by features of neuromuscular hyperactivity,
Multiple drug interactions – induced serotonin syndrome: a case report
TLDR
A case of serotonin syndrome induced by pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between three different selective serotonin‐reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and possibly ciprofloxacin is reported.
A Mixed Presentation of Serotonin Syndrome Versus Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome in a 12-Year-Old Boy.
TLDR
A Mixed Presentation of Serotonin Syndrome Versus Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome in a 12-Year-Old Boy is presented, with mixed results in favour of the former and against the latter.
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Learn how to recognize medical and surgical complications associated with these commonly used antidepressants.
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome, Malignant Hyperthermia, and Serotonin Syndrome
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Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a rare disease diagnosed annually in 2,000 hospitalized patients in the US and an incidence of 0.01–0.02% in patients treated with antipsychotic medications is suggested.
Expectant management of a parturient with serotonin syndrome: A case report
TLDR
Managing serotonin syndrome in pregnancy focuses on discontinuation of offending agents and supportive care, and delivery should be avoided pending resolution of serotonin syndrome.
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References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 58 REFERENCES
Treatment of the serotonin syndrome with cyproheptadine.
TLDR
The serotonin syndrome consists of behavioral, neuromuscular, and autonomic changes that result from increased activity of serotonin in the central nervous system.
Serotonin syndrome in a child after a single dose of fluvoxamine.
TLDR
The first reported case of serotonin syndrome after a single dose of fluvoxamine in a pediatric patient after ingestion of a single supratherapeutic dose of influenza is presented.
Serotonin Syndrome in a Child Associated with Erythromycin and Sertraline
TLDR
The proposed mechanism involves erythromycin inactivation of cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition of sertraline metabolism, accumulation of the drug, and precipitation of the syndrome.
Possible serotonin syndrome in association with 5-HT(3) antagonist agents.
TLDR
The authors report the probable occurrence of the serotonin syndrome with serotonin receptor subtype 3 (5-HT(3)) antagonist therapy when used to control nausea associated with chemotherapy in two seriously ill children.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
  • J. Levenson
  • Medicine
    The American journal of psychiatry
  • 1985
TLDR
Demographic and clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and pathophysiology are critically reviewed, and a new set of diagnostic criteria, incorporating physical signs and routine laboratory tests, is proposed.
The serotonin syndrome and its treatment
  • P. Gillman
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of psychopharmacology
  • 1999
TLDR
There is some evidence suggesting the efficacy of chlorpromazine and cyproheptadine in the treatment of serotonin syndrome, but the evidence for cypro heptamines is less substantial than that for chlor Promazine, perhaps because the dose necessary to ensure blockade of brain 5-HT2receptors is higher than that used in the cases reported to date.
Ecstasy intoxication: an overlap between serotonin syndrome and neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
TLDR
A 19-year-old woman is described with overlapping symptoms of neuroleptic malignant syndrome and serotonin syndrome after a single exposure to MDMA, drawing attention to the serious neurotoxicity, including fatal outcomes, caused by the use of this increasingly popular, illicit drug.
Antidepressants and the serotonin syndrome in general practice.
  • F. J. Mackay, N. Dunn, R. Mann
  • Medicine
    The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
  • 1999
TLDR
Improved awareness of the serotonin syndrome is needed within general practice, and there is a need to distinguish the relatively minor serotonergic symptoms from those of a severe, life-threatening serotonin syndrome.
Toxic serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome?
  • M. Fink
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Pharmacopsychiatry
  • 1996
TLDR
It is argued that NMS and TSS are examples of a non-specific generalized neurotoxic syndrome, and not specific syndromes: and that these are subtypes of catatonia.
The serotonin syndrome.
  • H. Sternbach
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The American journal of psychiatry
  • 1991
TLDR
The serotonin syndrome is a toxic condition requiring heightened clinical awareness for prevention, recognition, and prompt treatment, and further work is needed to establish the diagnostic criteria, incidence, and predisposing factors.
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