The safety and efficacy of tubal sterilization: An international overview

  title={The safety and efficacy of tubal sterilization: An international overview},
  author={Herbert B. Peterson and Ira Lubell and Frank Destefano and Howard W. Ory},
  journal={International Journal of Gynecology \& Obstetrics},
This article presents a synthesis of some of the major published studies on the efficacy and safety of tubal sterilization. The conclusions of this overview are that tubal sterilization is a safe operation, long‐term sequelae of tubal sterilization have not been well documented, and the risk of pregnancy following tubal sterilization is less than 1 in 100. Continued study is needed to determine how to make a safe and effective procedure even safer and more effective. 
Tubal sterilization: focus on the U.S. experience.
Tubal sterilization is highly effective and safe, and Failures, although uncommon, occur at higher rates than previously appreciated.
Four‐year follow‐up of electrocoagulation and tubal ring sterilizations in Costa Rica
Examination of the same women through 48 months poststerilization showed no significant difference between the two techniques with respect to the incidence of gynecologic surgery performed subsequent to sterilization.
Analysis of sterilization failure in Brazil
Results of a multivariate analysis indicated that the differential in the rate of sterilization failure by woman's age at sterilization at 12 and 24 months was statistically highly significant, however, the differential rate of failure by the other variables such as whether sterilized during a training period, number of sterilizations per surgeon per day, and year of sterilized were not statistically significant.
Quinacrine nonsurgical female sterilization: a reassessment of safety and efficacy.
The relative safety and efficacy of surgical methods and nonsurgical quinacrine pellet methods of female sterilization have been reassessed and the absence of increased risk of ectopic pregnancy among quinzine pellet method failures has been noted.
A comparison of local and general anesthesia for laparoscopic tubal sterilization.
A retrospective review of all laparoscopic sterilizations at San Francisco General Hospital performed over a 2-year period found that the two groups were similar with respect to complications and postoperative disability.
Laparoscopic Sterilization: an Obsolete Procedure? Laparoscopic Sterilization: an Obsolete Procedure?. I-20
Developments in gynecological endoscopy are truly remarkable. Their many applications haveimproved diagnosis and treatment of a variety of gynecologic conditions, whilst simultaneously bringing about
Quinacrine nonsurgical female sterilization : safety and efficacy a reassessment of
Sterilization is currently the most prevalent contraceptive method in the world; the demand for female sterilization, especially in developing countries, is likely to sharply rise in the remainder of
Comparative risks and costs of male and female sterilization.
Male and female sterilization procedures have efficacy rates that are not significantly different from each other and short-term costs that are 3.0 to 4.1 times that of vasectomy.
Original research article Quinacrine non-surgical female sterilization in Bangladesh
It is concluded that quinacrine non-surgical sterilization is a safe, acceptably effective method when two insertions of 252 mg qu inacrine with medroxyprogesterone injection as a supplement is used.
Sterilization needs in the 1990s: the case for quinacrine nonsurgical female sterilization.
The quinacrine pellet method for nonsurgical female sterilization offers hope that this enormous shortfall in sterilization services can be overcome in this decade.


Evaluation of sequelae of tubal ligation.
  • R. Stock
  • Medicine
    Fertility and sterility
  • 1978
An evaluation was made of 268 patients undergoing elective sterilization with respect to the ensuing development of menorrhagia, pelvic pain, and the need for gynecologic surgery. Preoperative and
Pregnancy after laparoscopic sterilization.
Pregnancies that occur after a method failure have a high risk of being ectopic, and patients sterilized by mechanical methods are best managed by microsurgical reanastomosis.
Sterilization failures in Singapore: an examination of ligation techniques and failure rates.
Findings for 35 patients who underwent religation showed that recanalization and the establishment of a fistulous opening caused the majority of failures, indicating that more effective methods of tubal occlusion in sterilization are needed.
Failures of laparoscopy sterilization.
Female sterilization by laparoscopy has become widely accepted throughout the United States and Europe. The failure rate of this procedure is still speculative. In the course of 4200 operative
Mortality Risk Associated with Female Sterilization
  • J. Aubert, I. Lubell, M. Schima
  • Medicine
    International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
  • 1980
The authors believe that low mortality figures are realistic and can be achieved in developing countries when experienced surgical teams are provided with adequate facilities, observe strict medical standards, utilize minilaparotomy and laparoscopy and avoid general and spinal anesthesia.
The subsequent course of patients sterilized by tubal ligation; a consideration of hysterectomy for sterilization.
It is the impression that hysterectomy rather than tubal interruption should be considered in those individuals with chronic or progressive diseases warranting destruction of the reproductive function, and in view of the very low mortality and morbidity resulting from simple hystorectomy in the absence of distortion of pelvic anatomy.
Mortality risk associated with tubal sterilization in United States hospitals
Estimating a case-fatality rate for tubal sterilization using data from the Commission on Professional and Hospital Activities and the National Center for Health Statistics with a review of the clinical circumstances for each woman whose death was identified as being potentially sterilization attributable found it to be nearly 8/100,000 procedures.
Deaths following female sterilization with unipolar electrocoagulating devices.
  • Medicine
    MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
  • 1981
Three women undergoing tubal sterilization in U.S. hospitals and a third death are summarized below, two of which were recently reported elsewhere (2) and three of which can be directly attributed to complications of a particular sterilization technique.
Hormonal levels following sterilization and hysterectomy.
Focus in this discussion is on a "so-called" poststerilization syndrome as a result of laparoscopically performed sterilization. The study reported compared asymptomatic patients sterilized with a
Deaths associated with laparoscopic sterilization by unipolar electrocoagulating devices, 1978 and 1979.
Because unipolar electrocoagulation has greater risk for these complications than alternative sterilization techniques, without proved greater benefits, the need for continuing its use in female sterilization is questioned.