The roles of phenology and reward structure in the pollination biology of wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

@article{Neff1990TheRO,
  title={The roles of phenology and reward structure in the pollination biology of wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).},
  author={J. L. Neff and B. Simpson},
  journal={Israel journal of botany},
  year={1990},
  volume={39},
  pages={197-216}
}
  • J. L. Neff, B. Simpson
  • Published 1990
  • Biology
  • Israel journal of botany
  • ABSTRACT A seven-year study of Helianthus annuus L., the common sunflower, in its native range in Texas has shown that the phenology and reward production schedules of individual florets within a head are of paramount importance in determining the foraging behavior of both specialist and generalist bees that serve as pollinators. Both pollen and nectar are produced only during the male phase of the protandrous disk florets, but pollen is produced bimodally whereas sugar accumulation is constant… CONTINUE READING
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