The roles of microtubule-associated proteins in brain morphogenesis: a review

@article{Tucker1990TheRO,
  title={The roles of microtubule-associated proteins in brain morphogenesis: a review},
  author={Richard P Tucker},
  journal={Brain Research Reviews},
  year={1990},
  volume={15},
  pages={101-120}
}
  • R. Tucker
  • Published 1 May 1990
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Brain Research Reviews
Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are a diverse family of cytoskeletal proteins that copurify with tubulin in vitro. Recently a number of novel approaches have been used to learn more about the functions of MAPs during brain development, including: localization of MAPs and their mRNA in the developing brain, comparisons of MAPs between species to learn potential fundamental characteristics, biochemical analysis of changes in MAPs in process-bearing cell lines, and sequence analysis of MAP… Expand
Microtubule-associated proteins and neuronal morphogenesis
  • A. Matus
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of Cell Science
  • 1991
TLDR
The microtubule-associated proteins are a set of structural proteins that bind to microtubules in vitro that occur at high levels in neurons where their expression is under strong developmental regulation, suggesting that they are involved in neuronal morphogenesis. Expand
Developmental regulation of MAP2 variants during neuronal differentiation in vitro.
TLDR
The expression of the various MAP2 mRNA isotypes and protein isoforms during the development of rat cerebellar granule cell neurons over a 21-day period in vitro was described and developmental regulation of MAP2 variants showed further developmental regulation. Expand
Differential distribution of two microtubule-associated proteins, MAP2 and MAP5, during chick dorsal root ganglion development in situ and in culture.
TLDR
MAP2 seems involved in the early establishment of the cytoarchitecture of cell bodies and the proximal axon segment of somatosensory neurons, while MAP5 is clearly related to axonal growth. Expand
Regulation of microtubule dynamics by microtubule-associated protein expression and phosphorylation during neuronal development.
TLDR
Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular properties of major neuronal MAPs which may be relevant to neuronal development and synaptic plasticity are focused on. Expand
Diverse distribution and function of fibrous microtubule-associated proteins in the nervous system.
TLDR
A role for MAPs in the establishment and regulation of neuronal form is inferred from their varied, but specific associations with the three principal structural compartments or domains of neurons—namely, axonal, somatic, and dendritic. Expand
Expression and distribution of phosphorylated MAP1B in growing axons of cultured hippocampal neurons
TLDR
Results are consistent with the hypothesis that MAP1B‐P plays an important role in the initiation and elongation of axons by regulating the dynamics of microtubules near the growth cone. Expand
Microtubule-associated protein-2 located in growth regions of rat hippocampal neurons is highly phosphorylated at its proline-rich region
TLDR
Analysis of expression levels and intracellular distribution of MAP2 phosphorylated at this site (MAP2-P), in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons at different developmental stages suggests that the phosphorylation ofMAP2 at its proline-rich region is an important event during neuritogenesis. Expand
Changes of MAP2 phosphorylation during brain development.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the immunocytochemical detection of MAP2 depends on modifications such as phosphorylation and conformational changes of the molecule, and that MAP2 staining patterns differ between MAbs. Expand
The low molecular weight form of microtubule-associated protein 2 is transported into both axons and dendrites
TLDR
A cDNA clone tagged with a 10 amino acid epitope from human c-myc showed that MAP2c is present in all processes, indicating that it can enter all kinds of processes and is stable in their cytoplasm. Expand
Making sense of the multiple MAP-2 transcripts and their role in the neuron
TLDR
The expression, localization, and possible functions of the newly identified spliced forms of the major MAP-2 forms are the focus of this review. Expand
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References

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Phylogenetic conservation of brain microtubule-associated proteins MAP2 and TAU
TLDR
Immunohistochemical staining of the Xenopus and quail cerebellum showed that MAP2 is highly concentrated in dendrites whereas the tau proteins are predominantly confined to axons, exactly as they are in rat. Expand
MAP5: A novel brain microtubule-associated protein under strong developmental regulation
TLDR
Immunoperoxidase staining of brain sections showed that MAP5 is present in neurons throughout the brain and that in them it is evenly distributed throughout axons, dendrites and cell bodies, which suggests thatMAP5 is particularly important in modulating microtubule function during the formation of neuronal processes. Expand
Differences in the developmental patterns of three microtubule- associated proteins in the rat cerebellum
TLDR
Results indicate that the combined appearance of MAP1 and MAP2 (dendrites) or MAP1 or MAP3 (axons) correlates with the appearance of morphologically distinct microtubules and provide further evidence that specific MAPs are molecular determinants of dendritic and axonal formation. Expand
Developmental regulation of two microtubule-associated proteins (MAP2 and MAP5) in the embryonic avian retina.
TLDR
The cellular distribution, developmental regulation and molecular forms of MAP2 and MAP5 are similar in the rat and quail, suggesting that these molecules have conserved and hence fundamental roles in the growth and differentiation of neuronal processes. Expand
The novel microtubule-associated protein MAP3 contributes to the in vitro assembly of brain microtubules.
TLDR
It is concluded that MAP3 contributes to the net assembly of brain microtubules observed in vitro, and may be particularly relevant in neonatal animals where brain MAP3 is more abundant than in the adult. Expand
MAP3: characterization of a novel microtubule-associated protein
TLDR
Using monoclonal antibodies, this novel species of brain protein that copurifies with microtubules is characterized and is designated as a microtubule- associated protein (MAP) by the following criteria. Expand
Heterogeneity of microtubule-associated proteins and brain development.
TLDR
The data demonstrate the existence of two types of heterogeneity of microtubule-associated proteins: plurality of protein species at every stage of brain development and changes in composition and activity dependent on development. Expand
Microtubule-associated protein 1B: identification of a major component of the neuronal cytoskeleton.
  • G. Bloom, F. Luca, R. Vallee
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1985
TLDR
Immunofluorescence microscopy of rat brain sections and cultured rat brain cells indicated that compared to MAP 1A and MAP 2, MAP 1B was particularly prominent in axonal as well as dendritic processes, indicating thatMAP 1B is a major, previously undescribed component of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Expand
In situ localization of microtubule-associated protein mRNA in the developing and adult rat brain
TLDR
The diverse distributions of MAP gene transcripts emphasize the importance of these proteins in generating heterogeneity of microtubule function and indicate that MAP compartmentalization within neurons is regulated in part by differential mRNA transport. Expand
Microtubule-associated proteins characteristic of embryonic brain are found in the adult mammalian retina.
We have used monoclonal antibodies against each of the major mammalian brain microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), MAP1, MAP2, MAP3, MAP5, and tau, to study the timing of appearance and theExpand
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