CONTEXT Vitamin D has regulatory effects on innate and adaptive immunity. Curiously, hereditary vitamin D-resistant rickets (HVDRR) patients show no increased incidence of infectious or autoimmune diseases. OBJECTIVES The aim of the study was to investigate the role of vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in innate and adaptive immune responses in monocytes and lymphocytes from HVDRR patients. DESIGN AND METHODS Fifteen HVDRR patients and 17 controls participated in the investigation. Activated monocytes (lipopolysaccharides) and lymphocytes (anti-CD3, CD28, and α-GalCer) were incubated with and without 25(OH)D3 (100 nM). The mRNA expressions of CYP27B1 and VDR; vitamin D response (TLR2); vitamin D response elements binding protein (hnRNP); antimicrobial peptides cathelicidin and β-defensin; the transcription factor enhancer binding proteins C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, and C/EBPε and enzymes involved in NO generation, Nos2, and Arginase1 were analyzed by RT-PCR. TNF-α, interferon-γ, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17 concentrations in lymphocyte cultures media were measured by ELISA. RESULTS Cathelicidin expression was lower in HVDRR monocytes than in control monocytes. 25(OH)D3 increased significantly the expression of cathelicidin in control monocytes (2.3-fold) but only slightly in HVDRR monocytes. 25(OH)D3 increased the expression of VDR (2-fold), C/EBPε (2-fold), C/EBPβ (1.7-fold), and hnRNP and suppressed TLR2 only in control monocytes. Unexpectedly, 25(OH)D3 increased the expression of CYP27b1, C/EBPα, Nos2, and Arginase1 in HVDRR monocytes. TNFα and IL-17 concentrations were significantly higher in HVDRR lymphocyte cultures than in controls. 25(OH)D3 suppressed IL-17 only in control lymphocyte. 25(OH)D3 increased IL-4, IL-10, and interferon-γ concentrations in control lymphocyte media but not in HVDRR. CONCLUSIONS Our results demonstrate impairments in various components of innate immunity in HVDTRR patients' monocytes and a proinflammatory cytokine profile in their lymphocytes. The underlying VDR-independent compensatory mechanisms that protect HVDRR patients from infections and autoimmune diseases remain undetermined.