Healing and Transcendence: A Roy Adaptation Model-Guided Comparison.
BACKGROUND Although successful aging is most often defined by the absence of disease and disability, older adults consistently report aging successfully even in the presence of chronic illness and functional limitations. A more holistic way of looking at old age suggests transcendence may be an important missing criterion for successful aging. AIM Transcendence, a late life developmental process, appears to have a profound effect within the spiritual domain but is an abstract, complex, and unfamiliar concept. A clear understanding of the meaning of transcendence is necessary to explore the concept's usefulness as a potential basis for future interventions to increase successful aging. METHOD Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis was adapted to analyze literature from philosophy, theology, developmental psychology, sociology, psychiatry, and nursing in order to gain a thorough understanding of transcendence. RESULTS Antecedents, attributes, referents, and consequences of transcendence were identified and then displayed in a conceptual model. A definition of transcendence in relation to successful aging was synthesized from the analysis. CONCLUSION The concept analysis suggested transcendence may provide a theoretical foundation for development of potentially cost-effective, efficacious interventions to foster a sense of meaning in life, well-being, and life satisfaction. The model under development may prove useful in planning potential interventions.