The role of the scapula in athletic shoulder function.

  title={The role of the scapula in athletic shoulder function.},
  author={William Ben Kibler},
  journal={The American journal of sports medicine},
  volume={26 2},
  • W. Kibler
  • Published 1 March 1998
  • Medicine, Biology
  • The American journal of sports medicine
The exact role and the function of the scapula are misunderstood in many clinical situations. This lack of awareness often translates into incomplete evaluation and diagnosis of shoulder problems. In addition, scapular rehabilitation is often ignored. Recent research, however, has demonstrated a pivotal role for the scapula in shoulder function, shoulder injury, and shoulder rehabilitation. This knowledge will help the physician to provide more comprehensive care for the athlete. This "Current… 

The role of the scapula in the rehabilitation of shoulder injuries.

A clinical understanding of the role the scapula plays in the mechanics of shoulder function and specialized techniques for the rehabilitation of injuries around the shoulder girdle is presented.

Scapular Positioning in Athlete’s Shoulder

A detailed overview of the literature focusing on the role of the scapula within the shoulder complex through the sports context is given and current concepts of rehabilitation dealing with relieving symptoms associated with inflexibility, weakness or activation imbalance of the muscles are described.

The Scapula and the Throwing/Overhead Athlete

The normal and abnormal asymmetries in the position and motion of the scapula are discussed and the effect of other soft tissue adaptations on the function of theScapula is discussed in detail.

Rehabilitation of scapular dyskinesis: from the office worker to the elite overhead athlete

A science-based clinical reasoning algorithm with practical guidelines for the rehabilitation of scapular dyskinesis in patients with chronic complaints in the upper quadrant is provided.

Scapular dyskinesis: the surgeon’s perspective

The present review looks at the causes and treatment options for scapular dyskinesis, meaning abnormal motion of the scapula during shoulder movement, and aims to provide an overview of the management of disorders of theScapula.

Fundamental principles of shoulder rehabilitation: conservative to postoperative management.

  • B. RubinW. Kibler
  • Medicine
    Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association
  • 2002
This instructional course hopes to raise awareness of the role of the scapula in the kinetic chain, and thus in the normal function of the shoulder, and based on this paradigm, discuss the role in shoulder dysfunction and the roles of the kinetic chains in the rehabilitation of shoulder disorders.

Detecting and treating shoulder impingement syndrome: the role of scapulothoracic dyskinesis.

The shoulder joint is most appropriately referred to as the "shoulder complex" since its total range of motion depends on four interworking articulations, but rehabilitation exercises can address biomechanic deficiencies.

Kinematics of Scapular Motion

The scapula plays a key role in virtually all aspects of normal shoulder function and an understanding of normal scapular motion can assist in identifying abnormalities of scAPular motion.

Physical Examination of the Overhead Athlete’s Shoulder

The examination of the thrower’s shoulder, coupled with a thorough history, will usually provide a solid functional diagnosis and provide a good idea as to the presence of structural damage.



Neuromuscular testing and rehabilitation of the shoulder complex.

An exercise routine developed to enhance proprioception, kinesthesia, and neuromuscular control is described and clinical research studies examining the strength of the rotator cuff and scapular stabilizers, in addition to joint position sense, are reviewed.

Current concepts in the rehabilitation of the athletic shoulder.

  • K. WilkC. Arrigo
  • Medicine
    The Journal of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy
  • 1993
Several current concepts in the rehabilitative treatment of the athletic shoulder patient are discussed, including neuromuscular control, proprioception, force couple efficiency, plyometrics, eccentrics, and scapular stability, which can enhance dynamic functional stability for the overhead athlete.

Biomechanical analysis of the shoulder during tennis activities.

: Biomechanical analysis of the shoulder in tennis is still in early stages; however, the available data do allow some conclusions and some recommendations for conditioning, evaluation, and

Shoulder pain in the overhand or throwing athlete. The relationship of anterior instability and rotator cuff impingement.

Use of the Apprehension Test followed by the Relocation Test has proved to be the most sensitive means of detecting occult anterior glenohumeral subluxation.

The winged scapula.

A simple clinical and etiologic classification of the winged scapula is proposed based on the study of patients with 23 different types of winging of the scapulas in conjunction with a review of the literature.

Scapulothoracic motion in normal shoulders and shoulders with glenohumeral instability and impingement syndrome. A study using Moiré topographic analysis.

Axioscapular muscle dysfunction is common with both instability and impingement syndrome of the shoulder, although it remains to be determined whether this represents a primary or secondary phenomenon.

Electromyographic study of the scapular rotators during arm abduction in the scapular plane.

It is believed that the patterns of muscle activity may be closely related to mechanical factors such as scapulohumeral rhythm and a migrating scapular Instantaneous Centre of Rotation (ICR) during arm elevation.

Electromyographic study of the scapular rotators during arm abduction in the scapular plane.

In 20 healthy, young adult male subjects, the muscular activity of the upper, middle and lower trapezius and the lower digitations of the serratus anterior were studied electromyographically during

Scapular Winging

The evaluation and treatment of the three types of scapular winging, which are primary, secondary, and voluntary, are discussed.

EMG analysis of the scapular muscles during a shoulder rehabilitation program

A group of 4 exercises was shown to make up the core of a scapular muscle strengthening program, including scaption, row ing, push-up with a plus, and press-up.