The role of the ortoq in the Mongol Empire in forming business partnerships

  title={The role of the ortoq in the Mongol Empire in forming business partnerships},
  author={Enerelt Enkhbold},
  journal={Central Asian Survey},
  pages={531 - 547}
  • Enerelt Enkhbold
  • Published 2019
  • Sociology
  • Central Asian Survey
  • ABSTRACT This study investigates the emergence and development of business partnerships established by the Mongols and their merchant partners, ortoqs, in the Middle Ages. Ortoqs are known to have conducted trade and money-lending with the capital invested by their partners. This study shows that the contractual arrangements of Mongol–ortoq partnerships closely resembled medieval partnership contracts, such as mudharaba, inan, societas and commenda. Sophisticated concepts of liability in… CONTINUE READING


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