The role of the kidney in heart failure.

@article{Metra2012TheRO,
  title={The role of the kidney in heart failure.},
  author={Marco Metra and Gad Cotter and Mihai Gheorghiade and Livio dei Cas and Adriaan Alexander Voors},
  journal={European heart journal},
  year={2012},
  volume={33 17},
  pages={2135-42}
}
Renal dysfunction is common in patients with heart failure and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Cardiac and renal dysfunction may worsen each other through multiple mechanisms such as fluid overload and increased venous pressure, hypo-perfusion, neurohormonal and inflammatory activation, and concomitant treatment. The interaction between cardiac and renal dysfunction may be critical for disease progression and prognosis. Renal dysfunction is conventionally defined by a reduced… CONTINUE READING

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