The role of the gut microbiota in energy metabolism and metabolic disease.

  title={The role of the gut microbiota in energy metabolism and metabolic disease.},
  author={Patrice D Cani and Nathalie M. Delzenne},
  journal={Current pharmaceutical design},
  volume={15 13},
Obesity is now classically characterized by a cluster of several metabolic disorders, and by a low grade inflammation. The evidence that the gut microbiota composition can be different between healthy and or obese and type 2 diabetic patients has led to the study of this environmental factor as a key link between the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases and the gut microbiota. Several mechanisms are proposed linking events occurring in the colon and the regulation of energy metabolism, such as… 

The role of intestinal microbiota in energy metabolism and metabolic discorders.

A metagenomic and integrative metabolomic approach could help in the discovery of which bacteria, among the trillions in the human gut, are specifically involved in the control of host energy metabolism.

Influence of Gut Microbiota on Subclinical Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

The role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes, which is promoted by a bacterial diversity shift mediated by overnutrition, is reviewed.

Intestinal microbiota and obesity.

There is ample evidence for a role of gut microbiota in the development of obesity in rodents and the magnitude of its contribution to human obesity is still unknown.

Impact of the gut microbiota on the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

Research aimed at understanding the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and the influence of the microbiota in these diseases is discussed.

Gut microbiota as a potential target of metabolic syndrome: the role of probiotics and prebiotics

Manipulation of the gut microbiota through the administration of prebiotics or probiotics may assist in weight loss and reduce plasma glucose and serum lipid levels, decreasing the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Importance of gut microbiota in obesity

Use of prebiotics and probiotics and other innovative techniques like antibiotic therapy or gut microbiota transplant, has been proposed as suitable tools to control the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity or insulin resistance through the diet.

Gut microbiota as a regulator of energy homeostasis and ectopic fat deposition: mechanisms and implications for metabolic disorders

To safely and effectively change human gut microflora, future research should highlight the complex hormonal, immunomodulatory and metabolic mechanisms underlying microbiota–host interactions in different tissues and candidate treatments should be evaluated in well designed trials with patient-oriented end-points.

The role of gut microbiota in mediating obesity and diabetes mellitus.

Research in animals and people suggests that a probiotic supplement may regulate the gut microbiota, thereby improving the prognosis for diabetes, and the mechanism underlying this phenomenon relates to a decreases in the inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress, as well as a decrease in leaky gut.

Fatty Acids, Gut Microbiota, and the Genesis of Obesity

Short-chain, saturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids have an impact with respect to gut microbiota and health, presenting central and systemic effects associated with the genesis of obesity.

The human gut microbiome and its role in obesity and the metabolic syndrome

The data currently published suggest that specific changes in the gut microbiota occur in overweight or obese patients and are either positively or negatively linked with adiposity, inflammation, and glucose or lipid homeostasis.



Changes in Gut Microbiota Control Metabolic Endotoxemia-Induced Inflammation in High-Fat Diet–Induced Obesity and Diabetes in Mice

It is found that changes of gut microbiota induced by an antibiotic treatment reduced metabolic endotoxemia and the cecal content of LPS in both high-fat–fed and ob/ob mice, demonstrating that changes in gut microbiota controls metabolic endotoxinemia, inflammation, and associated disorders by a mechanism that could increase intestinal permeability.

Metabolic Endotoxemia Initiates Obesity and Insulin Resistance

It is concluded that the LPS/CD14 system sets the tone of insulin sensitivity and the onset of diabetes and obesity and lowering plasma LPS concentration could be a potent strategy for the control of metabolic diseases.

The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage.

It is found that conventionalization of adult germ-free (GF) C57BL/6 mice with a normal microbiota harvested from the distal intestine of conventionally raised animals produces a 60% increase in body fat content and insulin resistance within 14 days despite reduced food intake.

Mechanisms underlying the resistance to diet-induced obesity in germ-free mice

GF animals are protected from diet-induced obesity by two complementary but independent mechanisms that result in increased fatty acid metabolism: elevated levels of Fiaf, which induces Pgc-1α; and increased AMPK activity.

Toll-Like Receptor-4 Mediates Vascular Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Diet-Induced Obesity

Findings identify the TLR4 signaling pathway as a key mediator of the deleterious effects of palmitate on endothelial NO signaling, and are the first to document a key role forTLR4 in the mechanism whereby diet-induced obesity induces vascular inflammation and insulin resistance.

An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest

It is demonstrated through metagenomic and biochemical analyses that changes in the relative abundance of the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes affect the metabolic potential of the mouse gut microbiota and indicates that the obese microbiome has an increased capacity to harvest energy from the diet.

TLR4 links innate immunity and fatty acid-induced insulin resistance.

It is suggested that TLR4 is a molecular link among nutrition, lipids, and inflammation and that the innate immune system participates in the regulation of energy balance and insulin resistance in response to changes in the nutritional environment.

Loss-of-Function Mutation in Toll-Like Receptor 4 Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance

It is shown that C3H/HeJ mice, which have a loss-of-function mutation in TLR4, are protected against the development of diet-induced obesity and a potential target for the therapy of these highly prevalent medical conditions.

Gut microbiota modulation with norfloxacin and ampicillin enhances glucose tolerance in mice

  • M. MembrezF. Blancher C. Chou
  • Biology, Medicine
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 2008
Modulation of gut microbiota via antibiotics administration ameliorated glucose tolerance of mice by altering the expression of hepatic and intestinal genes involved in inflammation and metabolism, and by changing the hormonal, inflammatory, and metabolic status of the host.

Leptin and adipocytokines: bridging the gap between immunity and atherosclerosis.

The most recent advances on adipokine research are reviewed, with a particular emphasis on the model that considers atherosclerotic lesions as effects of the (auto)immune-mediated damage of the endothelium that is sustained by low-degree chronic inflammation typical of obesity and metabolic syndrome.