OBJECTIVE Increased nitric oxide (NO) production in cirrhotic patients causes splanchnic vasodilation, leading to the development of the hyperdynamic circulatory syndrome. One factor that influences plasma NO concentration is eNOS gene polymorphism; consequently, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the eNOS gene G894T and T-786C polymorphisms play any role in the development of ascites in such patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS Three groups were created: 70 cirrhotic patients with ascites, 69 cirrhotic participants without ascites (stable cirrhosis), and 60 healthy controls. Polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and melting curve analysis. The plasma nitrite (NO marker) level was measured by deploying the spectrophotometric Griess reaction. RESULTS Plasma nitrite levels in the cirrhosis with ascites and stable cirrhosis groups were significantly higher than in the controls (p < 0.0001). The frequency of GG, GT, and TT genotypes for the eNOS G894T polymorphism in the cirrhosis with ascites group was 55.7%, 38.6%, and 5.7% respectively, while in the stable cirrhosis group these figures were 60.9%, 36.2%, and 2.9%. In the controls, the distribution was 63.3%, 33.3%, and 3.3%, respectively. The frequency of TT, TC, and CC genotypes for the eNOS-786C polymorphism in the first group was 52.9%, 34.2%, and 12.9% respectively; in the second group, this was 46.4%, 42%, and 11.6%, and in the controls, 48.3%, 46.7%, and 5%. There were no significant differences in genotype and allele distributions of the eNOS-786C and eNOS G894T polymorphisms among the groups. CONCLUSIONS Plasma nitrite concentration is enhanced in cirrhotic patients, and there is no relationship between the G894T and eNOS-786C polymorphisms and the development of ascites.