The role of the central ghrelin system in reward from food and chemical drugs

@article{Dickson2011TheRO,
  title={The role of the central ghrelin system in reward from food and chemical drugs},
  author={Suzanne L Dickson and Emil Egecioglu and Sara Landgren and Karolina P. Skibicka and J{\"o}rgen A. Engel and Elisabet Jerlhag},
  journal={Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology},
  year={2011},
  volume={340},
  pages={80-87}
}
Peripherally Circulating Ghrelin Does Not Mediate Alcohol‐Induced Reward and Alcohol Intake in Rodents
TLDR
Investigation of the role of circulating endogenous ghelin for alcohol reward and for alcohol intake in rodents suggests that central, rather than peripheral, ghrelin signaling may be a potential target for pharmacological treatment of alcohol dependence.
Concomitant Release of Ventral Tegmental Acetylcholine and Accumbal Dopamine by Ghrelin in Rats
TLDR
It is shown that ghrelin, administered peripherally or locally into the LDTg concomitantly increases ventral tegmental acetylcholine as well as accumbal dopamine release, and may serve as a novel pharmacological target for treatment of alcohol use disorder as wellAs binge eating.
Sub-chronic Ghrelin Receptor Blockade Attenuates Alcohol- and Amphetamine-Induced Locomotor Stimulation in Mice.
TLDR
It is shown that sub-chronic pre-treatment of the GHS-R1A antagonist, JMV2959, attenuated the ability of acute administration of alcohol as well as of amphetamine to stimulate locomotion and suggests that the G HS-R 1A could be a key target for novel treatment strategies for addiction.
Investigating the Role of the Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor in Food-Motivated Behaviours
TLDR
In a limited access model of high-fat binge eating, it was found that GHSR KO mice binged less on fat than WT mice, indicating that the VTA is not the primary site of GHSRs influence on fat bingeing.
Ghrelin and food reward: The story of potential underlying substrates
From Belly to Brain: Targeting the Ghrelin Receptor in Appetite and Food Intake Regulation
TLDR
Improving the ability of ghrelin ligands to penetrate the blood brain barrier would enhance central delivery to GHSR-1a expressing brain regions, particularly within the mesolimbic reward circuitry.
Ghrelin Receptor Influence on Cocaine Reward is Not Directly Dependent on Peripheral Acyl-Ghrelin
TLDR
This demonstration of variable ligand-dependence amongst functionally-distinct GHSR1a populations is used to generate a regulatory model for functional manipulation of specific effects when attempting to therapeutically target the ghrelin system.
Ghrelin signalling and obesity: at the interface of stress, mood and food reward.
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References

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Requirement of central ghrelin signaling for alcohol reward
TLDR
Central ghrelin signaling, via GHS-R1A, not only stimulates the reward system, but is also required for stimulation of that system by alcohol.
PRECLINICAL STUDY: Ghrelin stimulates locomotor activity and accumbal dopamine‐overflow via central cholinergic systems in mice: implications for its involvement in brain reward
TLDR
Ghrelin may, via activation of the acetylcholine–dopamine reward link, increase the incentive values of signals associated with motivated behaviours of importance for survival such as feeding behaviour, and whether this has therapeutic implications for compulsive addictive behaviours.
Role of ghrelin in food reward: impact of ghrelin on sucrose self-administration and mesolimbic dopamine and acetylcholine receptor gene expression
TLDR
The data indicate that ghrelin plays an important role in motivation and reinforcement for sucrose and impacts on the expression of dopamine and acetylcholine encoding genes in the mesolimbic reward circuitry, suggesting that gh Relin antagonists have therapeutic potential for the treatment of obesity and to suppress the overconsumption of sweet food.
Ghrelin modulates the activity and synaptic input organization of midbrain dopamine neurons while promoting appetite.
TLDR
It is shown that in mice and rats, ghrelin bound to neurons of the VTA, where it triggered increased dopamine neuronal activity, synapse formation, and dopamine turnover in the nucleus accumbens in a GHSR-dependent manner, suggesting that the mesolimbic reward circuitry is targeted by peripheral gh Relin to influence physiological mechanisms related to feeding.
PRECLINICAL STUDY: Ghrelin administration into tegmental areas stimulates locomotor activity and increases extracellular concentration of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens
TLDR
Findings indicate that ghrelin might, via activation of GHSR‐1A in the VTA and LDTg, stimulate the acetylcholine–dopamine reward link, implicating that gh Relin is a part of the neurochemical overlap between the reward systems and those that regulate energy balance.
Glutamatergic regulation of ghrelin-induced activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system
TLDR
It is found that ghrelin‐induced locomotor stimulation was attenuated by VTA administration of the N‐methyl‐D‐aspartic acid receptor antagonist (AP5) but not by Vta administration of an orexin A receptor antagonists (SB334867), indicating that GHS‐R1A signalling within the VTA is required for the ghrelIn‐induced activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system.
PRECLINICAL STUDY: Systemic administration of ghrelin induces conditioned place preference and stimulates accumbal dopamine
TLDR
It was found that intraperitoneal administration of ghrelin induces locomotor stimulation, conditioned place preference and accumbal DA‐overflow in mice, which suggests that the pre‐prandial rise in plasma gh Relin may, via this system, increase the incentive value for motivated behaviours such as food seeking.
Ghrelin receptor antagonism attenuates cocaine- and amphetamine-induced locomotor stimulation, accumbal dopamine release, and conditioned place preference
TLDR
The data suggest that the central ghrelin signaling system constitutes a novel potential target for treatment of addictive behaviours such as drug dependence, and appears to be required not only for alcohol-induced reward, but also for reward induced by psychostimulant drugs.
Ghrelin increases intake of rewarding food in rodents
TLDR
The hypothesis that central ghrelin signaling at the level of the VTA is important for the incentive value of rewarding food is supported.
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