Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death to children over age one in the USA. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Injury Research Agenda has identified supervision as one of five top research priorities [http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pubres/research_agenda/agenda.htm]. Sufficient research is lacking, however, on both methodological and theoretical issues. On August 14-15, 2003, external experts and CDC scientists met to address the role of supervision in injury prevention. The discussion had wide-ranging implications for the field. Below we summarize key elements of the discussions.