The role of sunlight in the removal and repair of viruses in the sea

  title={The role of sunlight in the removal and repair of viruses in the sea},
  author={Steven W. Wilhelm and Markus G. Weinbauer and C. Suttle and Wade H. Jeffrey},
  journal={Limnology and Oceanography},
We investigated the in situ destruction rates of marine viral particles as well as the decay rates of infectivity for viral isolates along an ~400‐km transect from oligotrophic offshore waters to productive coastal waters in the Gulf of Mexico. Light‐mediated decay rates of viral infectivity averaged over the solar day ranged from 0.7 to 0.85 h−1 in surface waters at all stations and decreased with depth in proportion to the attenuation of UVB (305 nm). The destruction rates of viral particles… 

Viruses as regulators of nutrient cycles in aquatic environments

The information presented demonstrates the importance of including viral processes in models of marine carbon and nutrient fluxes and plays an important role in the remobilization of organic nutrients and trace elements.

A Dilution Technique For The Direct Measurement Of Viral Production: A Comparison In Stratified And Tidally Mixed Coastal Waters

It is suggested that mixing of stratified waters during tidal exchange enhances virus-mediated bacterial lysis and recycled a greater proportion of the organic carbon required for bacterial growth under non-steady-state compared to steady-state conditions.

Diel cycles in viral infection of bacterioplankton in the North Sea

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Distribution of Virus-Infected Bacteria in the Western Equatorial Pacific 1

Overall, viruses appear to be an important factor in the loss of bacterial production in both oligotrophic epipelagic and mesopelagic zones in the study area.

The Effect of Cyanophages on the Mortality of Synechococcus spp. and Selection for UV Resistant Viral Communities

It is indicated that natural cyanophage communities tolerate damage by solar radiation better in summer than in winter, and net decay rates of Cyanophage infectivity in sunlight were similar, whether host cells were present or not, indicating that detectable cyanophages production did not occur during daytime in situ incubations.

Viral Production, Decay Rates, and Life Strategies along a Trophic Gradient in the North Adriatic Sea

This study investigated factors controlling the balance between viral production and decay along a trophic gradient in the north Adriatic basin, providing independent estimates of these variables and determining the relative importance of nanoflagellate grazing and viral life strategies.

Virus-infected bacteria in oligotrophic open waters of the East Sea, Korea

Comparison of grazing by heterotrophic nanoflagellates and lysis by viruses suggests that, overall, these processes cause comparable losses of bacteria in the oligotrophic East Sea; however, taken together, they accounted for only half of the total mortality.

Lysogeny and prophage induction in coastal and offshore bacterial communities

The results imply that solar radiation and hydrogen peroxide induced lysogenic phage production were not an ~mportant source ofphage production or bacterial mortality in offshore or coastal waters of the western Gulf of Mexico.

Double Maximum Ratios of Viruses to Bacteria in the Water Column: Implications for Different Regulating Mechanisms

Preliminary evidence that viruses are an important player in controlling bacterial abundance when bacterial growth is limited by organic matter is provided, and thus, regulates the decomposition of organic matter, oxygen consumption and nutrient re-mineralization in deep oceans.

Rapid Virus Production and Removal as Measured with Fluorescently Labeled Viruses as Tracers

This new method can be used to determine rates of virus degradation, production, and turnover in eutrophic, mesotrophic, and oligotrophic waters and will provide important inputs for future investigations of microbial food webs.



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It is concluded that strong sunlight affects the viability of bacteriophages in surface waters, with the result that direct counts of VLPs overestimate the number of bacteriaiophage capable of both infection and replication.

Mechanisms and Rates of Decay of Marine Viruses in Seawater

  • C. SuttleF. Chen
  • Environmental Science
    Applied and environmental microbiology
  • 1992
Calculations suggest that in clear oceanic waters exposed to full sunlight, most of the virus decay, averaged over a depth of 200 m, would be attributable to solar radiation.

Abundance and production of bacteria and viruses in the Bering and Chukchi Seas

The distribution, abundance, and production of viruses and bactena were investigated during an August to September 1992 cruise aboard the RV 'Alpha Helix' in the Bering and Chukchi Seas and suggest viruses to be a ubiquitous and dynamic feature and a significant source of bacterial mortality in Arct~c marine microbial communities.

Viral mortality of marine bacteria and cyanobacteria

High viral abundance in the ocean but also counts of bacteria and cyanobacteria in the final irreversible stage of lytic infection demonstrate the existence of a significant new pathway of carbon and nitrogen cycling in marine food webs and have further implications for gene transfer between marine organisms.

Dynamics and Distribution of Cyanophages and Their Effect on Marine Synechococcus spp

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Resistance to Co-Occurring Phages Enables Marine Synechococcus Communities To Coexist with Cyanophages Abundant in Seawater

Evidence is presented in support of the hypothesis that lytic phages have a negligible effect in regulating the densities of marine Synechococcus populations and that these viruses are maintained by scavenging on the relatively rare sensitive cells in these communities.

Viral dynamics: a model of the effects of size shape, motion and abundance of single-celled olanktonic organisms and other particles

There is a fairly close relationship between bacterial populations and virus disappearance rates in the marine environment, suggesting that non-host organisms are a major cause of viral mortality at the higher ionic strengths typical of sea water.

Plankton respiration and carbon flux through bacterioplankton on the Louisiana shelf

Measurements of community and bacterial respiration and bacterial production were made in highly productive shelf and less productive slope waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico, finding a paucity of data regarding respiration.

Long lag times and high velocities in the motility of natural assemblages of marine bacteria

The motility characteristics of natural assemblages of coastal marine bacteria were examined and suggest that marine bacteria are capable of previously undescribed quick shifts in speed that may permit the bacteria to rapidly detect and keep up with positional changes in small nutrient sources.