Expression of CXCR7 chemokine receptor in human meningioma cells and in intratumoral microvasculature.
Cancer metastasis is a major clinical problem that contributes to unsuccessful therapy. Augmenting evidence indicates that metastasizing cancer cells employ several mechanisms that are involved in developmental trafficking of normal stem cells. Stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is an important alpha-chemokine that binds to the G-protein-coupled seven-transmembrane span CXCR4. The SDF-1-CXCR4 axis regulates trafficking of normal and malignant cells. SDF-1 is an important chemoattractant for a variety of cells including hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. For many years, it was believed that CXCR4 was the only receptor for SDF-1. However, several reports recently provided evidence that SDF-1 also binds to another seven-transmembrane span receptor called CXCR7, sharing this receptor with another chemokine family member called Interferon-inducible T-cell chemoattractant (I-TAC). Thus, with CXCR7 identified as a new receptor for SDF-1, the role of the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis in regulating several biological processes becomes more complex. Based on the available literature, this review addresses the biological significance of SDF-1's interaction with CXCR7, which may act as a kind of decoy or signaling receptor depending on cell type. Augmenting evidence suggests that CXCR7 is involved in several aspects of tumorogenesis and could become an important target for new anti-metastatic and anti-cancer drugs.