The role of retinoic acid in embryonic and post-embryonic development

  title={The role of retinoic acid in embryonic and post-embryonic development},
  author={Malcolm Maden},
  journal={Proceedings of the Nutrition Society},
  pages={65 - 73}
  • M. Maden
  • Published 1 February 2000
  • Biology
  • Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Retinoic acid (RA) is the bioactive metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) which acts on cells to establish or change the pattern of gene activity. Retinol is converted to RA by the action of two types of enzyme, retinol dehydrogenases and retinal dehydrogenases. In the nucleus RA acts as a ligand to activate two families of transcription factors, the RA receptors (RAR) and the retinoid X receptors (RXR) which heterodimerize and bind to the upstream sequences of RA-responsive genes. Thus, in… 

Analysis, occurrence, and function of 9-cis-retinoic acid.

  • M. Kane
  • Biology
    Biochimica et biophysica acta
  • 2012

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Expression of a retinoic acid response element-hsplacZ transgene defines specific domains of transcriptional activity during mouse embryogenesis.

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The identification of a 9-cis retinol dehydrogenase in the mouse embryo reveals a pathway for synthesis of 9-cis retinoic acid.

Analysis by nonradioactive in situ hybridization in mouse embryos shows that expression of the 9-cis retinol dehydrogenase is temporally and spatially well controlled during embryogenesis with prominent expression in parts of the developing central nervous system, sensory organs, somites and myotomes, and several tissues of endodermal origin.

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    Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists
  • 1997
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