The role of protein-bound uremic toxins on peripheral artery disease and vascular access failure in patients on hemodialysis.


OBJECTIVE p-Cresyl sulfate (PCS) and indoxyl sulfate (IS) have been reported to predict poor clinical outcomes in hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, little is known about the effect of the two toxins on peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and vascular access dysfunction. Our objective was to explore the association between the two toxins and PAD and… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2012.07.012


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