Pixantrone is an anthraquinone-based inhibitor of topoisomerase II. It is similar to both the anthracycline doxorubicin and the anthracenedione mitoxantrone, but lacks the 5,8-dihydroxy substitution pattern of mitoxantrone, and has a tricyclic system unlike the tetracyclic structure seen with anthracyclines. Anthracyclines are the most active drugs in lymphoma therapy, but their use is limited by their cumulative and irreversible cardiotoxicity. Pixantrone was developed to improve the toxicity profile of the current anthracyclines and anthracenediones while maintaining their activity. Interestingly, pixantrone showed no measurable cardiotoxicity compared with its parent compound mitoxantrone or other anthracyclines at equi-effective doses in several animal models. Together with its superior cytotoxic activity in leukaemia and lymphoma models, these features render the drug a promising candidate for clinical development in indolent and aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In this review, the latest results of the use of pixantrone in indolen-t and aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are summarised.