The role of microbial mats in the production of reduced gases on the early Earth

  title={The role of microbial mats in the production of reduced gases on the early Earth},
  author={Tori M. Hoehler and Brad M. Bebout and David J. Des Marais},
The advent of oxygenic photosynthesis on Earth may have increased global biological productivity by a factor of 100–1,000 (ref. 1), profoundly affecting both geochemical and biological evolution. Much of this new productivity probably occurred in microbial mats, which incorporate a range of photosynthetic and anaerobic microorganisms in extremely close physical proximity. The potential contribution of these systems to global biogeochemical change would have depended on the nature of the… 
Hydrogen production in photosynthetic microbial mats in the Elkhorn Slough estuary, Monterey Bay
Combined biogeochemical and molecular studies of microbial mats collected from Elkhorn Slough, Monterey Bay, California, characterized the mechanisms of H2 production and identified a dominant hydrogenogen.
Long-term manipulations of intact microbial mat communities in a greenhouse collaboratory: simulating earth's present and past field environments.
Photosynthetic microbial mat communities were obtained from marine hypersaline saltern ponds, maintained in a greenhouse facility, and examined for the effects of salinity variations, finding changes in the community that strongly resemble those observed in the field.
Processes of carbonate precipitation in modern microbial mats
Phototrophic Microbial Mats
In illuminated environments photoautotrophic organisms are the driving force and these mats are subject of this chapter.
Cyanobacterial Mats and Stromatolites
A hypothesis has been developed which conceives a role for extracellular polysaccharides in calcification in cyanobacterial mats, which is often produced as the result of unbalanced growth caused by nitrogen deficiency.
Methane production by microbial mats under low sulphate concentrations
Cyanobacterial mats collected in hypersaline salterns were incubated in a greenhouse under low sulphate concentrations ([]) and examined for their primary productivity and emissions of methane and
Molecular Investigations and Experimental Manipulations of Microbial Mats: A View to Paleomicrobial Ecosystems
Four decades of research into the biogeochemistry of microbial mats has revealed miniature ecosystems, as complex as any on Earth, with an astounding diversity of microbial life. Microbial mats from
Fermentation couples Chloroflexi and sulfate-reducing bacteria to Cyanobacteria in hypersaline microbial mats
Past studies of hydrogen cycling in hypersaline microbial mats have shown an active nighttime cycle, with production largely from Cyanobacteria and consumption from sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB).
Hydrogen export from intertidal cyanobacterial mats: sources, fluxes and the influence of community composition.
Analyses of community composition by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and hoxH genes indicate that filamentous non-heterocystous cyanobacteria were important in the process of H2 export, as was the relatively low abundance and activity of methanogens and sulfate reducers.


Biogeochemical cycles of carbon, sulfur, and free oxygen in a microbial mat
Fermentation in cyanobacteria
Calculations show that the yield of ATP during fermentation, although it is low relative to aerobic respiration, exceeds the amount that is likely to be required for maintenance, which appears to be very low in these cyanobacteria.
Biology of anaerobic microorganisms
The Principles and Limits of Anaerobic Degradation: Environmental and Technological Aspects (B. Vogels, et al.) are published.
Evolution of the atmosphere.
  • J. Nunn
  • Geology, Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the Geologists' Association. Geologists' Association
  • 1998
Nitrogen cycling in microbial mat communities: The quantitative importance of N-fixation and other sources of N for primary productivity
Although N-fixation has been assumed to contribute substantially to the overall N requirements of primary production in benthic microbial mat communities, few quantitative studies have been
A new model for atmospheric oxygen over Phanerozoic time.
Good agreement for rates of C burial calculated via the model and via independent models indicates that the dominant factor that has brought about changes in atmospheric O2 level (and the isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater) over Phanerozoic time is sedimentation and not weathering or higher temperature phenomena such as basalt-seawater reaction.
Carbon isotope evidence for the stepwise oxidation of the Proterozoic environment
Trends in the carbon isotope composition of sedimentary organic carbon and carbonate show that during the Proterozoic aeon the organic carbon reservoir grew in size, relative to the carbonate reservoir, mostly during episodes of global rifting and orogeny.
Field and laboratory studies of methane oxidation in an anoxic marine sediment: Evidence for a methanogen‐sulfate reducer consortium
Field and laboratory studies of anoxic sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina, suggest that anaerobic methane oxidation is mediated by a consortium of methanogenic and sulfate-reducing
Sulfate Reducers Can Outcompete Methanogens at Freshwater Sulfate Concentrations
  • D. LovleyM. Klug
  • Environmental Science
    Applied and environmental microbiology
  • 1983
The demonstration that sulfate reducers can successfully compete with methanogens for hydrogen and acetate in sediments at in situ sulfate concentrations of 60 to 105 muM extends the known range of sediment habitats in which sulfate reduction can be a dominant terminal process.
Glucose Fermentation Products of Ruminococcus albus Grown in Continuous Culture with Vibrio succinogenes: Changes Caused by Interspecies Transfer of H2
The ecological significance of this interspecies transfer of H(2) gas and the theoretical basis for its causing changes in fermentation patterns of R. albus are discussed.